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A.G. Ivakhnenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Kursk)
S.A. Klimenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Ukraine)
V.V. Kobishchanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
I.S. Konstantinov, D.Eng., Prof., (Belgorod)
B.Ya. Mokritsky, D.Eng., Prof., (Komsomolsk-upon Amur)
D.I. Petreshin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.B. Protasiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Tula)
A. Pester, D.Eng., Prof., (Austria)
L.A. Savin, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
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D.L. Solovyov, D.Eng., Prof., (Murom)
Yu.S. Stepanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
A.G. Suslov, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
A.V. Khandozhko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
M.L. Kheifits, D.Eng., Prof., (Belarus)
A.S. Yanyushkin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bratsk)
A.V. Kirichek, D.Eng., Prof.
A.V. Morozova, Can.Sociol. Sc.
V.A. Tatarintsev, Can.Eng.
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The subscription index of catalogue
“Russia press” - 18945 semi-annual,
15621 – annual.
It is issued in February 2004.
4 numbers a year
Mechanical engineering and transport
S.G. Bishutin, A.G. Suslov.MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF GROUND FRICTION SURFACE WEAR PROCESS
Many factors affecting considerably surface wear cannot be taken into account within the bounds of existing approaches to the mathematical description of this process. It is well-known that the modes of finish grinding have a significant influence upon wear resistance of a friction surface. It is explained, for example, by differences in a structural – phase state of a surface layer formed in the course of thermal and force impact of abrasion. Therefore, for reliable fore-casting of the resource of many tribo-couplings it is necessary to estimate friction surface wear resistance taking into account the influence of conditions and modes of finishing abrasion.
The mathematical modeling of the process un-der consideration allowed obtaining an equation for the computation of a wear rate of run-in ground friction surfaces and non-run-in ones in which pressure in a contact, slip velocity, abrasion modes, form errors in a friction surface and also a state of a surface layer and a position error of a friction surface in a coupling are taken into account.
Experimental researches have confirmed a pos-sibility of use in practice the mathematical dependenc-es obtained.
The researches carried out allow forecasting more reliably ground friction surface wear of machin-ery and mechanisms
Key words: friction surface, surface wear velocity, mathematical modeling, abrasion
L.A. Savin, A.V. Sytin, V.O. Tyurin. LUBRICATION OF TULIP GAS BEARINGS BY LOW-VISCOUS CRYOGENIC LIQUIDS
The efficiency increase at minimum dimensions of movable turbo-sets is achieved at the expense of maximum admissible values of rotation frequencies (up to hundreds of thousands of rpm). At present as promising bearings with an elastic surface are tulip gas bearings. The advantages of these tulip gas bearings are the following: the capacity to self-adjustment, capacity for work under conditions of thermal deformations and at a certain gas pollution fed for lubrication. The computation of tulip gas bearings supposes a joint solution of the problems of gas dynamics, thermal physics, and theory of elasticity. The function of bending included in the equation of gap is calculated through common equations of elasticity theory for corresponding solids and in the totality with boundary conditions gives a complete description of elastic surfaces in a friction bearing. As lubrication material in gas bearings with elastic elements air is mostly used. In addition, it is possible to use low-viscous cryogenic liquids, for instance, neon. The comparison of thermal physical properties of air and low-viscous cryogenic liquid (neon) witnesses of neon application possibilities, but only at temperature of below 150°K at which its viscosity is equal approximately to the viscosity of air under normal conditions
Key words: tulip gas bearings, low-viscous cryogenic liquids, corrugated element, thermal and physical properties, simulator
E.A. Pamfilov, Ya.S. Prozorov, S.V. Kuznetsov, S.V. Lukashov. INVESTIGATION PECULIARITIES OF MECHANOCHEMICAL WEAR UNDER CONDITIONS OF SLIDING FRICTION
Mechanochemical wear (tribocorrosion) is metal de-struction caused by a simultaneous action of friction and corrosion. In many cases the interference of me-chanical and chemical phenomena (synergism) is manifested as a result of which the situation of wear can change considerably. Tribocorrosion occurs in a wide spectrum of combined mechanical and chemical effect.
The regularities of the interference manifestation of mechanical and chemical factors in tribocorrosion have been studied insufficiently neither theoretically, nor experimentally. For the analysis of tribocorrosion properties of materials under conditions of sliding fric-tion there is offered the use of the system allowing the exposition of a sample simultaneously to tribological and corrosion processes.
There are emphasized and described merits and demer-its of the basic groups of methods for the investigation of mechanochemical wear: galvanic, potentio-dynamic and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy.
It is defined that at the investigation of tribocor-rosion it should be purposeful to use electro-chemical methods inasmuch as they allow modeling many chemical properties of corrosion environment at the simultaneous mechanical effect.
Key words: mechanochemical wear, sliding friction, tribocorrosion, triboelectrochemical cell, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
S.P. Shets, V.I. Sakalo. INFLUENCE OF LUBRICANT ON PROCESSES, PROCEEDING IN ROLLING BEARINGS
Chemically active components which are avail-able both in structure of material of a blanket and in lubricant, decay under the influence of temperature, a force field of a solid body and catalytic impact of a svezheobnazhenny surface of metal, are allocated in the form of active agents who react and form the modified layer. The modified layer has smaller (in comparison with the main metal) resistance to shift owing to what decrease in coefficient of friction and replacement of intensive adhesive wear softer corrosion and mechanical is provided. The condition of details of the rolling bearing in the presence of the modified layer does not change during all service life. However in case of a leakage of lubricant or loss in it chemically active components the modified layer is not formed that leads to metal contact and failure of the bearing. Metal contact causes sharp temperature increase, and also mechanical damages to a type of zadir on bodies of swing and çàáîèí on the rings received as a result of shock loadings.
Intensity of wear of details of the rolling bearing is influenced substantially by the process temperature which depends on the relative speed of sliding and the normal squeezing force. In process of temperature in-crease of process the speed of education and a share of the modified layer increase. Critical value of temperature determines a lubricant scope. The concentration of an active component in lubricant is higher, the wear resistance of the rolling bearing is higher. When toughening the mode of friction there is a competition of two processes – educations and wear of the modified layer and if wear prevails, then inevitably there will be a metal contact leading to failure of the bearing.
Key words: : lubricant, couple of friction, friction coefficient, the rolling bearing, tribotechnical tests, the modified layer, intensity of wear
S.P. Shets, V.I. Sakalo, A.G. Suslov. CORRELATION OF BEARING FRICTION ASSEMBLIES WITH ABRASIVE WEAR OF THEIR TRIBO-COUPLING
To ensure wear resistance of all tribo-couplings of a bearing assembly at the expense of the abrasive wear decrease it is necessary the solution of problems connected with the impermeability of their movable joints. In this case by the impermeability we imply a process of sealed “wall” formation which is able to separate reliably volumes with different environments at considerable changes of external factors of environ-ment: temperature, dustiness, aggressiveness and oth-ers.
The contact of two hard surfaces of tribo-coupling of the “shaft-seal” type forms a system of cavities, capillaries of an arbitrary shape and contact patches. Under the action of pressure difference on separate capillaries arise leaks.
The depressurization of bearing friction assem-blies (leak moment) results in the decrease of wear rate of tribo-coupling of “shaft-seal” type, but a wear rate of other tribo-couplings such as “ring-solid of rolling motion”, for frictionless bearings or “shaft-bushing” for friction bearings increases because of abrasive penetra-tion into a contact area. The penetration of quartz particles (pollutions) through a sealing into a bearing assembly results in the increase of a constant of friction and initiation of abrasive wear in tribo-couplings of “ring-solid of rolling motion” and “shaft-bushing” types. The wear rate of “ring-solid of rolling motion” and “shaft-bushing” couplings depends on the abrasive concentration in lubricant and a leak at the outlet from the bearing assembly. For the wear resistance increase in tribo-couplings of bearing assemblies it is necessary not only to increase the hardness of contact surfaces, ensure optimum roughness, select materials in tribo-couplings, but also to ensure the impermeability and lubricant keeping in a friction area
Key words: : lubricant, wear resistance, wear rate, abrasion, tribo-coupling, impermeability, friction assembly
V.A. Panayoty. ANALYSIS OF SOLID LUBRICATION EFFECT UPON SURFACE HARDENING OF HIGH-SPEED STEEL TOOLS DURING SHARPENING
The mechanism of high-speed steel surface hardening during grinding is considered, the system for a complex investigation of physic-stress-strain proper-ties of surface layers is developed and the investigation results at the oil use are presented. It is determined that the value and degree of cold-hardening of a high-speed steel surface layer is a thermo-dependent process, the mechanism of structural and phase changes is analyzed and the efficiency of solid lubrication use in working process is shown. Oil coating on an abrasive tool during results in a natural decrease of cold-hardening at all values of a cross-feed motion. This is caused both by cutting force decrease, and by the decrease of grinding temperature because of the friction force reduction at the interaction of high-speed steel with an oiled disk. The regularities of austenite quantity changes after steel grinding under different conditions confirm phase changes influence upon a value and a degree of cold-hardening. The results obtained allow choosing reasonably cutting modes and characteristics of cBN disks at oil coating during shar-pening
Key words: solid lubrication, cBN disk, sharpening, high-speed steel, cold-hardening, cold-hardening depth, cold-hardening degree
V.P. Matlakhov, A.N. Ignatov, A.G. Suslov. SOFTWARE MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR DEFINITION OF PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION IN ANTIWEAR COATINGS
For the analysis of material property changes depending on external factors in materials science there is used a method of the micro-structure analysis of material obtained with the aid of a special optic or electronic microscope. Recently the increasing distribution and application have obtained program-hardware complexes for the automation of metallographic researches which allow speeding up considerably this process. The basis for the development of such complexes is a technology of technical (computer) vision – the theory for the creation of models and algorithms which can carry out the detection and classification of objects and also the processing all research data. For the efficient change of FOP parameters, and also to ensure a convergence (repetition) of test results it is necessary to ensure the authenticity of research data processing. It is achieved by means of the application of a specially developed software module for the definition of percentage composition in nitride-titanium and other wear-resisting coatings according to Photomath photographs. As input data for the software module there are used coating microstructure photos obtained with the aid of PMT-3M hardness meter. In the module mentioned all essential transformations for the further com-putation of a percentage composition with the obtain-ing of a result for a user and also saving in a database are carried out
Key words: software module, image binarization, image threshold processing , wear-resisting(anti-wear) coatings, percentage composition
A.V. Kirichek, D.L. Soloviyov, D.E. Tarasov.MACHINERY LIFE INCREASE BY COMBINED STRENGTHENING
The reason of failure of many machine parts is contact fatigue. To increase contact-fatigue wear re-sistance it is necessary to create a surface layer pos-sessing increased stress-strain properties which are formed by strengthening. The most effective methods of strengthening are those creating a surface layer with simultaneous high hardness and large reserve of plas-ticity. One of such methods is combined strengthening at which a surface to be strengthened is affected pre-liminarily by deformation shock waves forming a deep work-hardened layer and then its case hardening is carried out. As a result of this process a strengthened surface layer is formed which consists of hard uniform-ly strengthened carburized layer and a softer heteroge-neously strengthened sublayer alternating hard and soft areas depending on strengthening modes with shock waves. The operational researches of samples obtained by the offered combined strengthening have shown high efficiency of the method for life increase under conditions of contact cyclic loads which can increase considerably a range of machine parts to be strengthened
Key words:longevity (life), strengthening, strain wave, case-hardening, hardness, plasticity, surface layer
D.I. Petreshin, O.N. Fedonin, A.V. Khandozhko. AUTOMATION OF QUALITY PARAMETER CONTROL OF MACHINERY SURFACE LAYER UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY
Under conditions of automated production the matter of ensuring the required parameters of surface layer quality in machine parts at machining becomes urgent. To ensure the required quality parameters of a surface layer (QPSL) in machinery at mechanical oper-ation there are used simulators predicting their values depending on working modes. At the ensuring of QPSL in machine parts at mechanical operation occurs uncertainty connected with the absence of univocal simulators predicting QPSL depending on working modes. One of the methods to solve the uncertainties existing consists in the instruction and self-instruction of a technological system during control and application of obtained and accumulated information at adaptive control. And at the same time the problem of parametric identification at the adopted structure of a simulator is solved.
The parametric identification of simulators is carried out by a self-learning technological system of control (STSC). The developed STSC is intended for ensuring the specified parameter of roughness Ra , sur-face residual stresses, surface micro-hardness and the complex quality parameter of friction surface Cx. The algorithm of system functioning is realized as a soft-ware loaded in memory of a control device
Key words: simulator, self-learning technological system, quality parameters of surface layer, mechanical operation (machining)
A.M. Drokonov.VIBRATION INVESTIGATIONS OF GAS-COMPRESSOR UNITS WITH MARINE GAS TURBINE DRIVE
The operation reliability of power units is de-fined to a great extent by their vibration state, where a basic source of exciting effects is shafting.
For the thorough analysis of a vibration state of turbine units the special vibroacoustic investigations are necessary in the course of which there are must be defined: characters of vibration processes, increased vibration reasons, phenomena promoting the intensifi-cation of vibration processes in power units.
With the purpose of systematization and accu-mulation of such materials there were carried out in-vestigations of vibro-activity of gas-compressor units (GCU) with marine gas turbine drive and working at compressor plants of gas-main pipelines. The plant of GPA-16MG90 type with the power of 16MWt was an object of investigations, where a marine convertible DG-90 manufactured by production company “Zarya” was used as a drive for a natural gas super-charger of 370-18-1 NZL type.
The results of measuring indicate the necessity for taking measures to eliminate an increase vibration of a supporting – thrust bearing of the supercharger and gas turbine engine of DG type.
Key words: vibration, gas-compressor units, marine gas turbine drive, turbo-machine, bearing, vibro-velocity, vibro-travel
C.S. Tsukanova. ROD SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AT LOAD IMPACT WITH USE OF DYNAMIC ELEMENT
A dynamic computation for rod systems at load impact with the aid of the finite element method is con-sidered. For the digitization of systems there was used a dynamic element, the form functions which are the exact oscillating forms of structure elements. An error estimate of the computation at the use of a classic finite element with linear functions of a form is shown. The effectiveness of dynamic element application for the computation of systems at a load impact is presented
Key words: finite element method, form functions, dynamic finite element, rod systems, load impact
E.V. Tulubensky, A.M. Drokonov, A.V. Osipov.INTENSITY DECREASE OF HORSESHOE WHIRLWINDS IN NOZZLE INSTRUMENTS OF TURBOMACHINES
In this research work there is offered an original method for nozzles designing allowing the structure improvement of the flow arriving in a distributor by means of manufacturing nozzle blades with a perforat-ed input edge and a damping chamber located behind it or with cuts on the end areas of a blade. The analysis of aerodynamic properties of initial and updated variants of blades (perforation, making cuts and shears) is carried out with the use of the finite element method in the computation system of automated de-signing Autodesk Simulation CFD 2014 360. The analysis was carried out with the consideration of different grid models beginning with the simplest (from 500 000 finite elements) and ending with complex models with the closeness of finite elements near a blade profile (up to 2,000 000 finite elements). The research results show that the lowest level of velocities is observed in the variants with a perforated wall and longitudinal cuts. In such a way, these variants of embodiment allow decreasing considerably the intensity of horseshoe whirlwinds (up to 18-20%). A the analysis of pressure distribution in the output section in four variants of blade end area embodiment one can observe that in variants with a perforated wall and longitudinal cuts are seen the best values: in connection with lower pressure loss their effectiveness is on average about 0.2% higher, than the effectiveness of the initial model. The variants offered of the embodiment ensure also the decrease of vibro-acoustic activity of a stage
Key words: turbomachine, nozzle instrument, perforated profile, power waste, finite element method, Autodesk Simulation CFD
V.V. Sinitsyn, V.V. Kobishchanov. CONDITION DEFINITION FOR APPLICATION OF UNIFORM BRAKE RIGGING WITH CYLINDERS (BCR) IN BRAKE SYSTEMS OF FRIGHT EIGHT-WHEEL CARS
The application of BCR (brake cylinders with the built-in regulator of rod output manufactured by Transpneumatics Co.) in a brake actuator in fright eight-wheel cars with separate drives located in areas of car trucks is promising. Such a layout as is well known allows increasing fright car carrying capacity at the expense of an undercar area clearing. But the application of such systems for different types of cars is limited with design peculiarities of cars and a considerable scatter of reduction ratios.
The paper reports the consideration of a possi-bility for the location of a brake system with the BCR both in car truck areas, and on a car truck for a maxi-mum possible quantity of car types. The limitations on the proportions of a lightweight and carrying capacity for fright cars operated in the RF in which the applica-tion of a uniform brake system is possible. The use of a cylinder in a brake system with the location on a car truck as a system least dependent on design peculiari-ties of cars is offered. The BCR-10-85 cylinder is cho-sen as one of the most possible variants of brake cylin-ders.
A possibility of the application of a uniform rigging with the BCR-10-85 cylinder for cars with pressure control in cylinders with the aid of an auto-mated mode and application in a rigging of one or two holes for reduction ratio changes is defined. For cars having no possibility for pressure control in cylinders with the aid of an automated mode there is obtained a substantial quantity of reduction ratios depending on individual characteristics (lightweight and carrying capacity) of cars that does not allow using a uniform rigging.
Key words: : rigging, brake cylinder, reduction ratio, auto-mode, spring hanger flexibility
E.V. Slivensky, S.Yu. Radin, T.E. Mitina. ROD OSCILLATION INVESTIGATION OF ADAPTIVE TORSION SPRING FOR SPRING SUSPENSION OF SIX-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE BOGIES
In modern locomotive design to reduce a dy-namic effect upon a track there are widely used jaw and lawless six-wheel bogies supplied with a spring sus-pension using laminated springs, cylindrical spiral springs of compression and pneumatic springs. A con-siderable drawback of all known designs of spring sus-pension for rolling-stock is that all of them apart from a pneumatic one have no possibility for self-regulation in an automatic mode of their rigid characteristics de-pending on external dynamic impacts of track uneven-ness upon the latter. There is developed in Bunin State University of Yelets a promising invention-leveled structure of an adaptive torsion spring suspension ex-cluding such a drawback and a number of computa-tions was carried out for the substantiation its rational design values
Key words: adaptive torsion spring, oscillations, spring hanger
V.P. Tikhomirov, A.G. Strizhenok.METHODS OF MATERIAL CHOICE FOR COG-WHEELS
The method for material choice of low-carbon alloyed steel for manufacturing cog-wheels of axial reduction gear of locomotives of 2TE25A, TEM 18 is considered. The method allows choosing the best mate-rial for cog-wheels taking into account basic physical stress-strain and tribological characteristics and opera-tion conditions. The material choice is carried out on the basis of three criteria: value, strength, and wear-resistance for three kinds of steel. The procedure of material choice provides for the definition of the priori-ty on every criterion. As an illustration there is shown an example. A priority and a relative priority of materi-als compared one after another on every criterion of optimization are defined. With that end in view square matrices of connectivity are used. On the basis of data presented in the connectivity matrix there is defined a complex relative priority of competitive materials on the whole of totality of optimization criteria taking into account their weight. The offered method of material choice for heavy loaded cog-wheels allows choosing the best material reasoning from conditions of contact strength and life
Keywords: steel, case-hardening, physical and stress-strain characteristics, cylindrical cog-wheels, wear-resistance, durability (life).
M.Yu. Kulikov, M.A. Larionov, D.V. Gusev.ANALYSIS OF REGULARITIES IN ACCURACY PARAMETERS FORMATION AT PROTOTYPING
The purpose of the work was the study of regu-larities in the cylindrical surface formation at prototyp-ing. To achieve the task there were developed sketches of two parts of “cylinder” type. According to the sketches in the CAD medium there were formed two 3D computer parts. The next step to achieve the task was the conversion of the designed and created para-metric 3D part in STL format. The printing was carried out in two product lines: the cylinders of the first prod-uct line were printed at the maximum rate of the for-mation (Vform=12.7mm/h) and at the maximum layer thickness (Slayer=100 mkm), and cylinders of the second product line – at Vprint=5 mm/h; Slayer=50 mkm. The parts were printed according to the method of rapid protopyping (RP) – photopolymer light curing (Direct Light Projection –DLP) on Envision Ultra 3SP plant. Material – high-temperature photopolymer resin HTM 140. Heat-resistance of this material makes 140°C.
As a result of the research there was revealed a vivid saddle-shaped form in printed cylinders. The rea-son of a hidden defect lies in a high rate of printing and also in a layer thickness. It should be excluded that the reason of an error can be electronic mistakes during a 3D conversion of an object from CAD medium into STL format.
Key words: 3D printing, prototyping, accuracy parameters, photopolymer, saddle-shape form, STL format, DLP technique
M.Yu. Kulikov, M.A. Larionov, D.V. Gusev.CORRELATION INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN PROTOTYPED SAMPLES WITH CONDITIONS OF THEIR LOCATION AT MANUFACTURING
The purpose of this work is to reveal the influ-ence of the location of the product grown upon rough-ness during shaping at prototyping. To achieve the goal specified there were chosen plates with dimensions 10x10x3mm, and the surface investigated – a plane 10x10mm. Some sets of plates were printed on a 3D printer Envision Ultra 2 of high-temperature photo –polymeric resin NTM 140 according to Direct Light Projection (DLP). The plates made of NTM 140 after extraction from a printer have temperature durability of 140°C.
For more exact and deep researches of the phe-nomenon mentioned there was used a method of atomic – power microscopy (APM) for the definition of the surface micro-relief in samples under investigations. As a basic tool for the analysis of surface micro-relief a scanning microprobe microscope Solver Pro, and program package WSxM allowed obtaining 3D images of a surface layer of samples.
It is evident from the results presented that at the formation of a flat by means of the quick prototyping method according to a DLP type technology the most optimum scheme of location is that at which the angle of basic plane slope makes 8°
Key words:prototyping, machinery, photo-polymer, layered printing, roughness, location conditions
V.I. Butenko, L.V. Gusakova, A.D. Kulinsky. PROMISING DIRECTIONS TO INCREASE GRINDING EFFICIENCY IN MACHINE PARTS SURFACES
The problem of grinding process increase for machine parts surfaces can be solved by means of abrasive disks design updating, their composition and impregnation technologies. The structures of multiple grinding wheels containing rods in a basic abrasive mass including conducting elements are offered. Such disks allow increasing quality in surfaces machined of parts made of tough hard-to-machine steel and alloys on the basis of non-ferrous metals on indices of rough-ness, technological residual stresses and burns. High efficiency show multi-sector abrasive disks of different grain allowing the increase considerably the intensity of material removal at machining parts made of chro-mium-nickel steel and alloys. The effective composi-tions of abrasive masses are developed for tool manu-facturing including the introduction in them high-strength ferritic iron, chromium diiodide and wood resin. Polishing tools made of abrasive mass have 1.5 –twice higher durability between stropping operations and ensure the decrease of burn areas quantity on ma-chined surfaces of parts 2-2.5 times. The promising direction of the efficiency increase in parts surface grinding is the impregnation of abrasive disks by an aqueous solution of chromium diiodide which possess-es high anticeptic properties and at the iodine emission forms iron iodides with a low constant of friction. As a result of this the temperature drops in the grinding area by more than 30%.
Key words:efficiency, abrasive mass, dispersity, impregnation, abrasive disk
V.N. Gadalov, A.V. Frolov, V.I. Muraviyov, I.V. Vornacheva, T.N. Rosina.EFFICIENCY ADJUSTMENT OF STANDARD THERMAL TREATMENT OF 30HGSA STEEL
The efficiency of thermal treatment of 30HGSA steel is considered. The mode of bainitic har-dening contributing to smoothing of steel defective structure a more complete martensitic transformation and, as a consequence, to the increase of plastic and strength properties is considered
Key words: 30HGSA steel, thermal treatment, bainitic hardening, stress-strain properties, phase change
E.A. Mironova. STABILITY ENSURING IN THREADED CONNECTION TIGHTENING BY MULTISPINDLE NUTRUNNERS WITH PASSIVE ADAPTATION ON MOMENT
The necessity of the creation of a multispindle nutrunner ensuring a relatively stable moment of tight-ening in group threaded connections is substantiated.
A kinematic scheme of a multispindle nutrunner with passive means of adaptation on a moment on the basis of a differential mechanism use is offered.
The analysis is given of a moment error at mul-tispindle nutrunner tightening on the basis of passive adaptation
Key words:multispindle nutrunner, coupler of limit moment, differential mechanism, tightening moment error, passive adaptation
G.V. Serga, V.A. Lebedev, K.A. Belokur, D.Ya. Yakovlev. ROTARY-HELICAL TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FOR PARTS MACHINING
The technical solutions for efficiency increase of technological systems for parts finishing and strengthening based on the use of screw containers are offered. The essence is revealed, design peculiarities and technological possibilities of a rotor-helical tech-nological system with a vibro-container and an adjust-ing spring and a rotor-helical technological system with a rotating container are described. The results of exper-imental researches of granular material motion in a screw container with the use of three-factor experiment planning are shown. The assessment of the screw con-tainers efficiency application reasoning from their de-sign peculiarities is given
Key words: technological system, screw container, vibratory activator, extension spring, finishing, strengthening, load mass
Yu.N. Mozhegova. COMPUTERIZED NONDESTRUCTIVE CHECK OF MATERIAL POROSITY
This paper reports the mathematical dependence of material porosity on material structure and conditions of gas flow through material controlled. The design of the device for porosity nondestructive check and a principle of its operation are presented. The results of experimental researches carried out on the products of complex ceramic systems are shown. The accuracy in porosity control on the device offered is substantiated and the recommendations for its use in production are made
Key words:computerized nondestructive check, porosity, gas-dynamic method, accuracy, mapping camera
N.A. Zhizhkina.TECHNOLOGY OPTIMIZATION FOR CENTRIFUGAL-CAST ROLL MANUFACTURING
This paper reports the sheet roll spun casting. It is shown that sheet rolls of required quality and with minimum production costs are manufactured through a method of spun casting on a machine with a vertical axis of a mould rotation. It is defined that at spun cast-ing a more intensive foundry cooling occurs as a result of which a blank is characterized with a denser and more even structure of a working layer. It is revealed that the stability of such a process depends to a consid-erable degree upon a spin casting system functioning a significant property of which is a speed of rotation.
In the paper there is analyzed a rotation speed influence upon a grain size, a quantitative ratio of structural constituents in a working layer composed of nickel-chromium cast iron and also upon the level of its properties. The analysis of the rotation speed influence of a casting mold upon a structure and a property level of a roll working surface was based on experimental investigations of foundries under industrial conditions. The microstructure (the size of primary grains, their composition) of products analyzed was estimated with the aid of a common metallographic procedure.
On the basis of experiments carried out it is determined that even an insignificant increase (by 7%) of mould rotation speed during roll casting allows without expensive processing of liquid melt of a work-ing layer increasing its structure uniformity. As a result of this the level of its properties increases (hardness – by 3 units). Consequently, the increase of rolling tool efficiency is expected.
The presented results of investigations are basic for works on servicing characteristics increase of spin-cast rolls.
Key words: spin-cast rolls, working layer, structure formation, spin casting system
V.I. Averchenkov, A.S. Samsonenko. AUTOMATION OF OPTIC INSPECTION CONTROL AT QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF PRINTED CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY SOLDERING
The development of methods of designing and assembling electronic units on circuit boards with the use of surface assembling techniques (SAT) became one of the priority fields. The product optic control is the most common method of control carried out by specialized equipment, an automated optic inspection (AOI). On the basis of the fulfilled analysis of technical solutions on the organization of inspections of dif-ferent manufacturers and according to the test results in practice of some variants there was offered a circuit including the following equipment layout: a set of chambers, a system of linear displacement, a controller, a computer and software.
The optical inspection software can be divided into the software of management and the software of control. The former serves for the computation of a control signal, the comparison of co-ordinates of equipment (with physical (F), imported (C) and in-spected (P)) interpretation of coordinates, interpolation and so on. The software of control contains modules: of data import from Gerber-file, the identification of board images obtained from the chamber, of the com-putation and comparison of identified components with a standard, of the analysis defects and the definition of a defect type, of database (DB) filling, of the interaction with a user.
The system described in comparison with foreign ana-logues has a smaller set of options, but solves a prob-lem of control under conditions of enterprises manufacturing electronics of the second class (according to IPCA-610 Standard “Criteria for Electronic Assemblage Acceptance).
Key words:automated optical inspection, AOI, surface mounting, printed circuit assemblies, soldering quality management, machine-tool construction
E.V. Lemesheva, P.V. Tikhomirov, A.M. Atroshchenko, N.A. Bulkhov, M.A. Izmerov. NEUROCOMPUTER MODELING OF CONTACT RIGIDITY
Contact rigidity of a joint is one of the main cri-teria of operability of forest cars. It defines vibration activity and durability of the tightened bolted connec-tions therefore its assessment will allow to predict be-havior of technical systems. In work the technique of an assessment of contact rigidity by means of the neu-rocomputer modeling allowing to consider parameters of quality of a blanket is presented. Results of re-searches allowed to receive mathematical models for contact rigidity.
In the paper there is presented a procedure of contact rigidity estimate with the aid of neurocomputer modeling. A contact rigidity of a joint is one of the basic criteria of machine and mechanism capacity for work. It defines vibration activity and strength of tight-ened bolted connections therefore its estimate will al-low forecasting the behavior of technical systems. Neu-rocomputer modeling is a promising method allowing taking into account quality parameters of a surface layer of machinery at the analysis of a deformed state
Key words:contact rigidity, joint of surfaces, regression equation, neurocomputer modeling, parameters of quality of a surface
M.Yu. Rytov, S.A. Shpichak. METHOD ENSURING ACCESS TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCES OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM BY WATER SUPPLY COMPANY
The problems of access control to information and technological resources of automatic control sys-tems for water supply companies are considered. The formalized model of the process of reliable access to information and technological resources is shown. The model takes into account the existence of a multitude of communication channels and a possibility of the organization of the operative cross access. A method to ensure a reliable access to information and technical resources of automatic control systems by water supply companies on the basis of the access policy combination, a scheme of deposit and a preliminary distribution of access authenticators. As a base exam-ple there was adopted Blom’s scheme. The method allows ensuring an operative cross access in case of emergency. To ensure an operative access in the method mentioned there was used a scheme of a complete division of a secret in the combination with authenticator evolution. As a basic example the evolution of authenticators based on Lamport’s protocol is considered
Key words::automatic control systems, water supply company, access control, authentication, information resources, technological resources
A.V. Averchenkov, E.E. Averchenkova, D.V. Aksyonenko.ALGORITHMS AND ORDER OF EXAMINATION CARRYING OUT ON ESTIMATE
OF ENVIRONMENT EFFECT UPON REGIONAL SOCIAL-ECONOMIC SYSTEM FOR KNOWLEDGE BASE FORMATION OF CORRESPONDING INFORMATION SYSTEM
The examination for the estimate of the envi-ronment effect upon a regional social-economic system for the formation of a knowledge base of a corresponding information system is a sequence of separate procedures. Expert assessments are processed in the corresponding information system (CIS).
In the paper there is shown an algorithm for a computation of an expert weight at the formation of a knowledge base of a corresponding information sys-tem, and also a mathematical apparatus of expert response processing is presented.
The author’s experience in the application of the expert assessment method in the estimate of the presence both a connection force between environment, and a regional social-economic system. For the assessment of the effect force as a mathematical apparatus the theory of a fuzzy set was used.
The expert response processing has shown that 487 variants of connections under analysis can be di-vided into groups of a strong, medium and weal effect taking into account their belonging to the groups Sm . The computation of the concordance factor W and check-up for the expert response co-ordination of this stage of the examination have shown a high degree of co-ordination of expert opinions. The amount of 445 connections obtained as a result of the examination characterizing a strong and medium influence of envi-ronment upon a regional social-economic system were loaded into a knowledge base of CIS as the most sig-nificant ones. The CIS processes and analyzes exami-nation results after which it offers the selection of con-crete measures of a management type allowing either increasing, or grading their influence depending on the context. Therefore, the developed CIS increases the efficiency of processing and analysis of expert assess-ments, which on the whole ensures effective decision-making by managers and specialists
Key words:examination, social-economic system, knowledge base, corresponding information system
A.A. Kolpakov, Yu.A. Kropotov.ALGORITHM FOR EFFICIENCY INCREASE OF HETEROGENEOUS MULTI-PROCESSOR COMPUTER SYSTEMS
In the paper there is considered an algorithm developed on the basis of modified PRAM-model for efficiency increase of parallel computations on special-ized computer modules.
By means of the efficiency assessment method there were carried out comparative experimental inves-tigations of the algorithm developed. The assessment results of the algorithm for the parallel computation efficiency increase on special computer modules show efficiency increase not less than 2-4 times depending on the number of flows under investigation
Key words:GPGPU, PRAM-model, parallel computations, heterogeneous computer systems, graphics processors
K.E. Shinakov, M.Yu. Rytov, O.M. Golembiovskaya, K.V. Chirkova.SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROCESSING CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
Confidential information processing in infor-mation systems under conditions of the universal in-formatization in both state-owned and private compa-nies is an urgent problem.
Many operators processing a trade secret or per-sonal data underestimate possible damage caused by the disclosure, deletion or change of confidential in-formation and afterwards become victims either of deliberate criminals or suits of workers whose rights were violated. In such a way, the safety risk assessment of confidential information processed in information systems is a priority trend both for an operator and for a subject of confidential information. As a result of the investigation carried out there was developed a procedure for risk assessment of information systems processing confidential information in which it is possible to define and process a critical group of threats, and also a system for the definition of sufficient and the best set of counter-measures among possible ones. At the intermediate and final stage there is defined a significance of an information safety risk witnessing of measures carried out for the assurance of confidential information safe-ty
Key words:information systems, confidential information, estimate of safety risk, Churchman-Ackoff method
M.Yu. Rytov, E.V. Leksikov, P.A. Kovalyov.FUZZY COGNITIVE MODELING APPLICATION FOR CARRYING OUT OF INFORMATION SAFETY AUDIT OF INFORMATION PORTALS OF REGIONAL EXACUTIVE AUTHORITIE
At the present moment the internal policy is formed under complicated conditions of foreign situa-tion. The regional policy is formed on the basis of in-dex leveling in socio-economic development. The sup-port of vital functions in social and economic systems of regions plays a role of no small importance in the system of executive power authority (EPA) including regional one. In the interests of assurance of public administration realization it is necessary to have at the disposal a condition for the existence of the vital func-tions process in social and economic systems. The in-formation portals which perform a role of information and management systems (IMS) have a significant element in the management of social and economic systems of a region. These systems allow performing online information gathering, storage, transfer, analysis and processing regarding a situation changing for deci-sion making. The IMS development makes new re-quirements to the realization of the methodology of process management, taking into account situation changes. The analysis of information flows of regional EPA witnesses of that for management decision mak-ing only 10-15% of available information is used to-day
Key words:automated management systems, regional executive authorities, fuzzy cognitive modeling, information safety audit, information portal
A.I. Yakimov, E.A. Yakimov, V.I. Averchenkov, N.N. Ivkina.OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF CONTROL BY SIMULATION MODEL FORMATION IN CORPORATE INFORMATION SYSTEM
The use of the wide spectrum of information technologies in corporate information systems allows offering the iteration method for a distributed for-mation of simulation models. In accordance with this method at each stage of designing the commercial software tools with certain functionality are used.
The considered technological process (TP) of simulation model formation (software toll creation) is a controlled system being at one of the states variable at each stage of a technological process as a result of a control action (control). At the same time the efficiency of a control process is characterized by a multidimensional purposeful function (PF) subject to a system state and control used.
In the investigation presented the problem of multicriterion control of a technological process of simulation model formation in accordance with Bell-man’s principle of optimality. The justification of an optimum solution is shown for the unidimensional or two-dimensional characteristics of a flow on arches of an oriented acyclic graph of a technological process. The presented example of the solution of the optimiza-tion problem with the use of resources of f – and p- type in a corporate information system shows the ne-cessity of priority criterion definition for the final choice of a route on a graph with technological modes, that is, an optimum variant of resource distribution
Key words:simulation model, multicriterion control, Bellman’s principle of optimality, technological process, corporate information system
M.G. Shalygin, A.L. Safonov. TRIBOTECHNICAL TEST AUTOMATION USING DAQ-TECHNIQUES
In the paper there is considered the automation of machines for tribotechnical tests. A method for the automation of testing machines of friction based on the use of DAQ-techniques is offered. A kinematics and a functional scheme of a testing machine of friction are shown. The means for the automation of friction and wear tests at a reciprocal motion including precision sensors are shown. A method for the definition of combined wear in a sample and counter-body is presented. The scheme of the automation of a loading device with automatic additional loading of a sample up to the value specified by an operator is offered. A scheme for an automatic breakdown of tests at system over-heating is shown. The algorithm for the operation of an automated system of investigations at wear tests is developed. The depen-dences are shown on the basis which the system calculates test parameters such as friction force, friction path, wear rate. In the paper there is shown an example of the interface of the program which controls tests and also a method for the calibration of wear sensors is described. A program window is shown in which a value of joint wear in a sample and counter-body is registered
Key words:friction, automation, tribotechnical tests, wear, DAQ-techniques
A.G. Serebrennikova, M.A. Kozlova, O.P. Kharina. FIRMWARE REALIZATION FOR OPTIMUM CUTTING SPEED DEFINITION AT HARD-TO-MACHINE MATERIAL WORKING
A scientific and technological advance is insep-arably linked with the development of leading mechanical engineering branches: aerospace industry, rocket production, electronic and atomics, power and chemical engineering to which high requirements are made. A constant increase of requirements to the quality of complete products, their life and reliability causes a necessity to use the certain groups of materials possessing high mechanical strength, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high temperature strength. To the materials with such properties belong alloys based on titanium and corrosion resistant steel forming hard-to-machine material group (HMG).
On the territory of the city of Komsomolsk-upon-Amur there are two works of defense industry (DIW). According to the mean estimate about 15-17% of DIW parts are used in ships, and about 10-20% - in planes.
The firmware realization for the optimum cut-ting speed definition at hard-to-machine material, by the example of 12H18N10T steel and TT20 alloy is considered. The procedure for carrying out experiments confirming this express-method is described
Key words:firmware realization, TT20 titanium alloy, 12H18N10T steel, cutting speed, cutting temperature, hard-to-machine materials
.N. Strizhakova. EFFICIENCY INDICES OF RESOURCE USE AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES
The current approaches to the efficiency defini-tion of resource use at industrial enterprises are ana-lyzed. According to existing theories of a firm, in a general case in economy there are emphasized three kinds of efficiency: allocative, adaptive and synergetic.
The economic theory of welfare considers the efficiency of resource distribution and use with the application of five paradigms: a utilitarian criterion, criteria of Rawls, Kaldor-Hicks, T. Skitovsky and A. Bergson. For the assessment of a living standard of people the economic science uses a number of factors, such as Gross Domestic Product, National Income, a level of social life development. But their application is possible only at the macrolevel of control. At the level of an enterprise or a sector the group of investment efficiency indices can be used as a basic one. The effi-ciency in the financial analysis can be estimated with the use of two basic criteria: profitability, profit value. In the paper there are shown values used for the as-sessment of allocative efficiency of all kinds of re-sources separately – labour, capital, information, hu-man capital. Merits and demerits in the computation of “labour productivity” index are shown. The occur-ring inaccuracies are presented in the assessment of work done, that resulted in the distortion of the current situation estimate in an industrial system and also in the elaboration of wrong management solutions. The author has offered a set of parameters, an aggregative index – share ratio coefficient of intensive and exten-sive factors for the definition of an allocative efficiency system. In the paper there are presented concepts of adaptive and synergetic efficiency, the existing values of the assessment of the mentioned kinds of efficiency are analyzed are combined into into a single model
Key words:effectiveness, resources, allocation, adaptation, synergetic efficiency, industry