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The subscription index of catalogue
“Russia press” - 18945 semi-annual,
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It is issued in February 2004.
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Friction and wear
A.I. Kumenko, N.Yu. Kuzminykh. DEVELOPMENT OF RELIABILITY CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF ROTOR TECHNICAL STATE ON SLIDER BEARINGS UNDER OPERATION CONDITIO
The problems of methodical improvement in the application of shaft sensors for the systems of vi-bration control, monitoring and automatic diagnostics of a technical state of power plants are considered. The assessment of a current standard basis for vibratory control systems is given and its imperfection for the assessment of the technical state of rotors and turboset bearings is shown. The criteria for vibration reliability of rotors and bearings of turbosets with their rotors supported by slider bearings are offered.
The criteria for the evaluation of a technical state and vibration reliability of rotors under operation conditions take into account the application of a com-plete system of shaft sensors in accordance with RSS 55263-2012.
The criteria formulated are necessary for the as-sessment of a technical state in modern systems of automatic diagnostics. In addition to conventional vibration parameters (according to RSS 55263-2012 and RSS 55265.2-2012) there are offered in addition about two tens of parameters. Besides there are offered boundary values of these parameters exceeding ones reduces a vibration reliability and general reliability of shafting. The criteria are obtained on the basis of experimental and rated works by the authors for turbosets of 60-1200MWt TES and APP.
The concept for the improvement of the systems of monitoring and automatic diagnostics for electric power installations with the use of shaft sensors is offered. The examples of modeling a number of defects at starting and stationary work are shown
Key words: monitoring systems, automated diagnostics, shaft sensors, turboset, shafting, slider bearings, defects, rotors, misalignment on half-couplings, correcting centering
K.S. Akhverdiev, A.M. Mukutadze, B.M. Flek. DAMPER WITH POROUS ANISOTROPIC RING
In the work on the basis of Darcy equations de-fining lubricant flow in porous layers, and of Reynolds modified equation the problem of an unsteady motion of viscous incompressible lubricant in the gap of a po-rous damper is under solution. A case is under consid-eration when a forced lubricant supply is carried out in circumferential and radial directions taking into ac-count the influence of orthogonal anisotropy of a po-rous layer.
As a result of the solution of the problem speci-fied there is found a field of pressures in a porous and lubricating layer, and analytical dependences for efforts in an oil film are obtained. Besides, there is defined a module of an unbalance transmitted effort and also stationary and transient ratios of transfer. It is proved that at the forced lubricant feed in a circumferential or radial direction taking into account the influence of orthogonal anisotropy of a porous layer, a damper functions more steadily.
The obtained specified calculated models al-lowed defining a number of supplementary factors and also carrying out a comparative analysis of results newly obtained and already existing ones. It confirmed a larger proximity of a new model an actual practice
Key words: hydrodynamics, finite-dimensional damper, lubricant forced feed, porous ring, anisotropy of penetrability in radial direction
I.V. Mukhortov, E.A. Zadorozhnaya, K.A. Pochkaylo. ANTI-WEAR ADDITIVES INFLUENCE UPON HYDRODYNAMIC FRICTION MODE PARAMETERS IN BEARINGS OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES
An essential condition to ensure an engine life having 300,000 – 1 000,000 km according to race con-sists in assurance of a minimum wear rate of crankshaft bearings. For such units as connecting-rod bearings a maximum allowable value of bearing brass wear makes 100 mkm which corresponds to an integral linear wear intensity of 10-14 …10-13 that is possible only at a hydrodynamic mode of friction actually at all modes of engines operations. Ensuring liquid friction in all range of contact pressures is achieved both through design methods, and technological ones. To the latter belongs first of all the application of lubricants with high wear-resistant properties. In this connection arises a problem to reveal a mechanism and degree of the effect of lubricant components upon a range of contact pressure where liquid friction is realized.
This paper reports the experimental evidences of the increase of contact pressures at which is achieved a minimum value of a constant of friction at the introduction in lubricant a standard wear-resistant additive – dialkyldithiophosphate of zinc (ZDDP). So, at the introduction in coal oil without additives I-20A (viscosity type ISO 32) 1.25 and 2.5% ZGGP maxi-mum contact pressure at which is realized a hydrody-namic mode of friction increases by 1.8 and 2 times accordingly. Because of impossibility to explain exper-imental data by a chemical interaction of ZDDP with surface material of tribo-coupling there is offered and substantiated a mechanism of ZDDP influence upon rheological parameters of lubricant in a separation layer. A rheological model allowing the computation of the wear-resistant additives influence upon a value of hydrodynamic pressures in a lubrication layer is of-fered. The idea of the initiation by a wear-resistant additive of multimolecular adsorption of lubricant on the surface of tribo-coupling may be used for the optimization of ZDDP structure and also for the prognostication of changes in pressure coefficient of viscosity in a lubrication layer
Key words: wear-resistant additives, rheological model, constant of friction, slider bearings, wear
M.A. Mukutadze.PRESSURE EFFECT ON POROUS ELEMENTS PERMEABILITY
In the paper on the basis of non-dimensional equations of motion of incompressible lubricant in a working gap and in porous layers of a bearing sleeve there is obtained a calculated model of a radial finite bearing with a double porous insert. A case is consid-ered when a permeability of porous layers on the boundary of gets one value. Lubricant is fed in a radial direction through a hole in a bearing body with subse-quent lubricant filtration through insert pores.
As a result of the solution of the problem speci-fied is obtained a field of rates and pressures in porous material and in a lubrication layer. There were deter-mined analytical dependences for the constituents of a vector of a supporting force and a friction moment and also a load factor and a constant of friction were obtained. Besides, is defined a parameter characterizing a relative length of a porous constituent. It is proved that a rational running regime is achieved at the length of a porous constituent equal to 1/6 of a bearing length. The calculated specified models obtained allowed carrying out an analysis and comparison of theoretical results with experimental ones which defined a proximity of a new model to practice
Key words: hydrodynamics, radial finite bearing, pressure, anisotropy, permeability, radial lubricant feed, con-stant of friction, load factor
E.A. Zadorozhnaya, I.G. Levanov, A.L. Dudnikov. METHODOLOGY IN DEFINITION OF CONROD BEARINGS LIFE OF HEAT-ENGINE
The paper reports the sequence of the definition of bearings resource in a crank gear of heat-engines. A brief description is given regarding the procedure for the computation of bearing hydromechanical properties in terms of hydro-dynamic theory of lubrication and that of the procedure for the definition of an area of contact interaction. The input equations for the computation of dynamics and lubrication are: the equation for the field of hydrodynamic pressures in a lubrication layer separating random loaded surfaces (Reynolds equation); the equations set of plane motion of a shaft journal center; the heat-balance equation manifesting the equality of heat values mean in a cycle of load disseminated in a lubrication layer of a bearing and heat removed by lubricant flowing out in its faces. The procedure for the determination of an area of a contact interaction is developed in accordance with a molecular-mechanical theory of friction and a fatigue theory of wear according to I.V. Kragelsky. The extension of the area of a contact interaction (an area of the violation of a hydrodynamic mode of lubrication) in a slider bearing was defined in terms of the computation of the de-pendence of a minimum thickness in a lubrication layer of a bearing of a connecting rod upper head upon a rotation angle of a crankshaft. At the same time there were taken into account: the non-Newton’s prop-erties of a lubricant; the presence of oil feeding sources on friction surfaces; possible deviations of friction surfaces from a regular form. The procedures presented at the given stage can be used for a comparative assessment of tribo-couplings life in heat-engines at an initial stage of designing
Key words: : bearing for upper head of connecting rod, theoretical resource, hydromechanical properties, contact interaction, wear diagram
V.E. Lazarev, K.V. Gavrilov, A.A. Doikin, J. Sequard-Badge. MODIFIED ENERGY MODEL OF FRICTION AND WEAR AS APPLIED
TO INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE TRIBOCOUPLINGS
For the description and wear prediction in tribicouplings there are theoretical formulae and also empirical models. Most of well-known regulations may be used only under specific conditions of contacting. The purpose of this work is the investigation of tribicoupling “piston guide – cylinder liner” in an in-ternal combustion engine (ICE). In particular, for that there were carried out experimental investigations on a tribometer realizing a reciprocal motion of piston and cylinder liner samples. The results of experimental investigations were analyzed with the use of a wear model which is the most applicable for the description of this type of tribocouplings. This model is based on the combination of energetic theory and molecular-mechanical method with a precise definition of friction surface topography parameters. Such a modified model of friction and wear allows combining the prognostication of a layer worn with fatigue theory that gives a possibility of its use as applied to the life analysis of any reciprocating tribosystem
Key words: “piston-cylinder” tribocoupling, wear model, topography of friction surface
A.M. Mukutadze. INVESTIGATION OF TRANSFER RATIO FOR DAMPFER WITH DOUBLE LAYER POROUS RING
In the paper on the basis of Darcy equations de-fining a lubricant flow in porous layers and modified Reynolds equation is solved a problem of unsteady flow of viscous incompressible lubricant in the gap of a double-layer porous damper. A case is considered when permeability in porous layers changes according to a normal low, and a combined feed of lubricant is carried out simultaneously in axial and radial direc-tions.
As a result of the solution of the problem speci-fied there is found a field of pressures in porous layers and a lubrication layer, there are also obtained analyti-cal dependences for efforts in an oil film, a module of unbalance transmitted force and also stationary and transitional transfer ratios are determined. It is proved that the combined lubricant feed a damper functions more stably, than at a separate axial and radial its feed.
The obtained specified calculated models al-lowed determining the efficiency of additional factors account, and also carrying out a comparative analysis of results newly obtained and already available that defined a larger proximity of a new model to real prac-tice.
Key words: hydrodynamics, finite radial bearing, damper, double-layer porous ring, combined lubricant feed, transient transfer ratio, stationary transfer ratio
M.A. Gorina, A.V. Zhuravlyova, E.N. Gryadunova, N.G. Kalashnikova, A.V. Gorin.
LUBRICANT TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE UPON PULSE HYDROPNEUMATIC DRIVE OPERATION
A pulse hydro-pneumatic drive can make a per-cussive effect up to 15,000 J. A head carrying out a pulse effect (a blow) on an object is cocked in an oper-ation position by liquid. At the same time occurs a compression of a working body (gas) in a gas accumu-lator. The pulse influence occurs because of head ac-celeration at the expense of a working body in a pneu-matic accumulator.
The operation of a pulse hydro-pneumatic drive depends on a number of parameters: viscosity and temperature of operating fluid, pressure of pneumatic accumulator initial charge and others. In the course of work oil becomes warm because of a high rate of travel in control equipment of a pulse drive in hydro-mains that results in changes in blow energy.
A simulator describing stages and acceleration of the head of a pulse hydro-pneumatic drive. As a result of a numerical experiment carried out in the en-vironments of Mathcad and Matlab there are obtained dependences of blow energy upon working liquid tem-perature.
To investigate the influence of different parameters of a pulse hydro-pneumatic drive upon its operation was designed and carried out a test bench which allows changing different parameters of a drive in a wide range. The experimental dependences of blow energy upon temperature of a working body and the dependences of blow energy upon working liquid viscosity are obtained. A comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental results which has given good convergence is carried out.
The conclusions obtained: the operation of a pulse hydro-pneumatic drive is effected greatly both by the viscosity of a working body, and its temperature; the best values of head energy correspond to the mean viscosity of working liquid; to obtain a constant of blow energy it is necessary to use working liquids with stable viscosity at high tempera-tures: it is expedient that different additives should be used in working liquid to reduce a constant of friction and wear-resistance increase.
Key words:hydro-pneumatic drive, temperature, energy, efficiency, lubricant types, rate
Bishutin, A.G. Suslov, V.I. Sakalo. STRUCTURE FORMATION IN SURFACE LAYERS OF GROUND PARTS IN FRICTION COUPLES DURING THEIR OPERATION
A surface layer in deformable material is an in-dependent structural level of deformation which plays a significant functional role in a part behavior at the operation of this part. It is conditioned on not only by a certain influence of a surface layer state upon perfor-mance of a part, but also by peculiarities of its defor-mation.
The surface layer deformation gains special sig-nificance during friction of mating ground parts. At friction the basic changes of material take place in a thin (up to some micrometers) in a surface layer. The localization of stresses and their pulse character at fric-tion results in the generation of deformation defects. These defects arising on the surface move then to a certain depth conditioning the development of plastic deformation. The structure and properties of a de-formed layer are defined by an initial state of material, conditions of loading, temperature and environment in which a couple of friction operates.
The experimental investigations carried out of the surface layer formation in parts ground revealed various mechanisms of their behavior at friction affecting substantially the wear resistance of parts in couples of friction.
The investigation results allow choosing sub-stantiated scientifically the conditions and modes for finishing friction surfaces ensuring the formation of wear resistant thin near-surface structures that will in-crease considerably machinery life and efficiency of technological operations of their finish grinding
Key words: surface wear resistance, surface quality, abrasive finishing, structure formation of surface layer, external friction
A.Yu. Albagachiev, V.D. Danilov. MAGNETIC LIQUID IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
MODE OF SPHERICAL SURFACES
From the position of the hydrodynamic lubrica-tion theory are considered the peculiarities of magneto-liquid lubrication in a point contact determined with a complicated character of the interaction of hydrody-namic and magnetic forces in a lubrication layer. The pressure distribution in a lubrication layer of magnetic liquid is considered as a super-position of the augend and addend šć and šģ induced with hydrodynamic and magnetic forces. The contribution of the constituent šć is described by Reynolds equation in accordance with the classic hydrodynamic theory. At the saturation of magnetic liquid the constituent šģ is presented as a function of the magnetic field strength, saturation magnetization of magnetic liquid and its viscosity and also velocity of rolling. As a result of the solution of a hydrodynamic problem through a numerical method there are defined conditions under which a lubrication layer loses its stability that is followed with the loss of carrying capacity in areas with negative pressure. The dependences of resistance to rolling forces, and sliding ones in a contact of spherical surfaces
Key words: magnetic lubrication, hydrodynamics, pressure, layer thickness, viscosity, velocity
S.G. Bishutin, A.G. Suslov, V.I. Sakalo. TECHNOLOGICAL MODE EFFECT OF FINISH GRINDING ON TRIBOTECHNICAL INDICES OF SURFACES MACHINED
Grinding is the most common finish stage of friction surface machining. The surface machined is transferred in a non-equilibrium state in consequence of thermal and power effect at grinding. During friction part material strives for a more equilibrium state in micro-contacts of surface layers due to the presence of a considerable share of a defect phase formed at finish grinding. It is evident that the process of the material transition from a non-equilibrium state (after grinding) into a more equilibrium state (at surface running-in) and mainly defines the character of modes and finish grinding effect upon surface tribotechnical indices (wear intensity, running-in period, constant of friction).
The researches were carried out in two stages. In the first stage at the expense of changes of grinding depth and time of surface sparking-out (that is, the intensity and duration of thermal and power effect of grinding on a sample) there were formed surface layers with different parameters on steel samples. In the se-cond stage of investigations there were carried out tri-botechnical tests of grinded samples under the same conditions and, in such a way the effect of grinding modes on surface durability was evaluated.
On the basis of the results there were revealed the dependences of sample wear on test time and also dependences for the computation of wear intensity in grinded surfaces made of different structural materials.
It is shown that at the abrasion there are possi-bilities for considerable increase (up to several times) of machinery surfaces durability by means of grinding depth changes and time of surface sparking-out, as these technological modes define the intensity and duration of thermal and power effects of abrasion upon a surface layer
Key words: surface durability, finish grinding, technological modes of working, tribotechnical tests
Mechanical engineering and transport
M.Yu. Semyonov, P.N. Demidov. M.Yu. Ryzhova, I.P. Korolyov.
CARBON MASS TRANSFER REGULARITIES AT CASE-HARDENING
IN LOW-PRESSURE ATMOSPHERE AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF SIMULATOR
By significant advantages over other methods of case-hardening possess processes carried out in oxy-gen-free environment, in particular, vacuum and ionic atmospheres which are used for surface strengthening the most critical parts of machinery and tools. These processes are characterized with a great amount of possible options of technological modes, an optimum choice of which is difficult through an experimental way. That is why a wide practical use found simulators of vacuum and ionic case-hardening in which the boundary conditions describe carbon mass transfer from working medium into metal. It is determined in an experimental way that at vacuum and ionic case-hardening in working medium having hydrocarbons, in particular, acetylene upon a saturated metal surface is formed either graphite or cementite which are a source for carbon diffuse into a metal depth. Thereupon at the formation of simulators boundary conditions it is necessary to take into account that carbon activity in these stages is equal to 1. That is why in boundary conditions should be introduced carbon concentrations in austenite corresponding to these activities. An ob-tained earlier through methods of spectral analysis direct proportionality between a carbonizing capacity of working medium and an acetylene content in it is explained by hydrocarbon thermal decomposition offered by a basis reaction at which Pauly quantum-mechanical principle is carried out. The results obtained are true both for vacuum, and for ionic working medium used at case-hardening as the ionization of latter does not exceed 10% of vol
Key words: diffusion, mass transfer, case-hardening, boundary conditions, simulator, hydrocarbon media
A.M. Drokonov, A.E. Drokonov.
INVESTIGATION OF VIBROACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS-PUMPING UNITS OF GTK-10-4 TYPE
The investigation of vibroacoustic characteristic of gas-pumping units of GTK-10-4 type.
Power units improvement, as a rule, results in the decrease of units steel intensity and under condi-tions of the increase of air-gas flows and facilities de-veloped it causes a growth of vibroacoustic activity of plants elements.
Taking into account this factor, it is necessary to develop measures to reduce noise and vibrations in sources of their origin at the design elaboration both at the stage of design, and at the stage of reengineering. With this purpose there are carried out the investiga-tions of noise and vibration characteristics of a gas-pumping unit of GTK-10-4 type equipped with a sta-tionary gas-turbine unit with a capacity of 10 MWt and a natural gas supercharger of 520-12-1 type manufactured by NZL.
The noise and vibration sources of impeller ma-chines are studied, their vibroacoustic characteristics are analyzed, and the methods to reduce vibroacoustic activity of gas-pumping units of such a type operating at compressor stations of trunk pipelines are offered
Key words: vibroacoustic characteristics, gas-pumping units, turbomachine, noise, vibration, noise muffler, shock absorber
K.A. Goncharov, I.A. Denisov, E.I. Ilyin.DYNAMIC ANALYSIS PECULIARITIES OF SUSPENSION TRUCK TRAVEL IN BRIDGE CRANE WITH LINEAR DRIVE
The paper reports the results of a dynamic anal-ysis of suspension truck travel in a bridge crane with a linear drive. As compared with the existing designs this drive possesses a number of advantages and distin-guishing capacities which should be taken into account at the formation of dynamic models. So, the interaction force between the elements of an electric motor affects the resistance value to a truck travel of friction forces.
A nominal operating rate of linear electric mo-tors exceeds 1 m/sec. The operating rates of the travel of most load-lifting machines and their separate ele-ments are within the bounds of 0.1 – 1 m/sec. It is evi-dent that even to maintain the same rate of travel the introduction of a control system is necessary. On the other hand, linear electric motors with the control sys-tems possess high dynamic characteristics and may be used to reduce load oscillations on a flexible suspen-sion which is particularly significant for technological cranes.
A dynamic analysis is carried out for a single-mass and double-mass models. The results of computations confirmed a necessity for the drive control to obtain a working speed of movement and also to reduce load oscillations and dynamic loads upon mechanisms and a metal structure of a load-lifting machine. The analysis has also shown that a single-mass model does not give a complete comprehension of changes in a speed of a mechanism at acceleration and it should not be used at the design computations of movement mechanisms of this type
Key words: linear electric motor, mechanical data, single-mass model, double-mass model, bridge crane, suspension truck
I.E. Lobanov.THEORETICAL ANALYTICAL METHOD IN PROBLEM SOLUTION
OF LIQUID VACUUM FREEZING IN QUIET STATE
A generalized closed analytical solution of the problem of a quasi-stationary process in liquid vacuum freezing in a quiet state with regard to the thickness of the frosting layer ξ whereas heretofore numerical solu-tions of this problem occurred. The advantage of the analytical solutions obtained of the problem of a quasi-stationary vacuum freezing of moisture in a fine-dispersion state over existing numerical ones consists in the identification of an immanent tie between defining and determined parameters regarding a thickness of the frosting layer ξ. It is also possible to use them di-rectly at the computation without resorting to the help of computers
Keywords: heat exchange, vacuum freezing, cooling, liquid, analytical method
S.V. Gaist, S.A. Katayeva, A.M. Markov, P.O. Cherdantsev, E.Yu. Lapenkov.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF QUALITY METRICS FORMATION
PROCESS DURING PLASTIC MILLING
Composite materials are widely used in me-chanical engineering, but at edge cutting machining, in particular, during milling these materials a number of peculiarities arise which must be taken into account at the definition of cutting modes and design-geometrical parameters of cutters. Besides, new composite materi-als machining does not allow using effectively the rec-ommendations developed earlier. In such a way, to solve such a problem it is necessary to carry out exper-imental investigations on the analysis of the influence of milling mode characteristics and design-geometrical of a tool upon values of roughness of a surface pro-cessed and tool wear. As a cutter for investigations there were taken hard-metal end-milling cutters of TC-8 (tungsten-cobalt) type, the experimental samples – pipes made of composite material with oblique longi-tudinal-transverse fiber winding (OLTFW). As varied parameters were adopted cutting modes: cutting speed V, m/min, feed S, mm/tooth and milling depth t, mm. During the experiments were controlled the following parameters: tool wear Δ, mkm, roughness of the sur-face Ra, mkm and a depth of a faulty layer h, mkm.
To carry out the experiments there was offered an original design of an assembly milling cutter which allows defining in an experimental way optimum geo-metrical parameters of a tools to achieve output milling parameters specified. On the basis of experiments data there are obtained dependences allowing the estimate of parameter modes influence upon the period of cutter duration at the same time a temperature is affected mostly by a milling depth and a feed on a tooth affects the wear of an end flank
Key words: composite materials, glass-fiber material, milling, temperature, cutter wear, cutting modes.
E.A. Belkin, O,I. Markov, V.N. Poyarkov.
OPTICAL CIRCUITS OF HOLOGRAPHIC CONTROL PLANT OF MICRORELIEF FORMATION PROCESS
One of the ways allowing the increase of accuracy and control devices potentialities consists in the use of system complexes investigating a holographic image of an object under control.
The design peculiarities of system complexes of this set allow using module-geometrical approach for the simulation of a surface investigated.
The module-geometrical approach allows, in its turn, obtaining the topography of a microrelief with an analytical description and conservation of a natural sur-face curvature and also a three-dimensional model of an aero-hydro-dynamic surface with a complex shape which is a smooth module connection having also an analytical presentation.
To obtain a holographic image of an object which allows fixing geometrical characteristics in a nano-interval are used the circuits of image recording through Leight-Upatnieks method.
There is developed and approbated an optical cir-cuit of a profilograph scanning a holographic image of an object in a visible interval of electro-magnetic waves and allowing the reception of surface characteristic for structuring its three-dimensional model on the basis of a module-geometrical approach.
The circuit of a roentgeno-profilograph for active control of microrelief formation is developed
Key words:optical circuit, profilograph, roentgeno-profilograph, microrelief topography, holographic control.
A.V. Averchenkov, A.N. Kozlenkov, D.V. Orekhov.
DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIALIZED MODULES OF DESIGN PREPARATION FOR ORDER FORMATION OF VOLUMETRIC HYDRAULIC DRIVE
This paper reports the consideration of problems in the automation of an application formation for the design of a hydraulic drive and further automation of the design preparation of production.
The matter concerns the problems in the formation of an application for designing hydraulic equipment which arise mainly in small-scale and medium companies. The process of an application formation at the “Borox-Hydraulic” is under consideration before the appearance of specialized modules and after their occurrence. A database of all basic elements of a volumetric hydraulic drive is under development for the selection of optimum elements a method of analytical hierarchies is used.
The methods offered modules developed are applicable at small-scale enterprises engaged in repair and manufacturing hydraulic equipment. The application of modules developed reduces considerably the process of an application workup, and the libraries developed of elements allow a designer to create easily new products. With the aid of analytical hierarchies one chooses optimum elements which could be selected from the list of the most essential ones and use at the development of new equipment.
Key words:hydraulic equipment, specialized modules, design preparation, small-scale enterprise, method of analytical hierarchies
M.Yu. Kulikov, M.V. Yagodkin.THREAD-CUTTING PECULIARITIES IN HOLES WITH ULTRA-SMALL DIAMETERS
The process of thread-cutting process in holes with ultra-small diameters is considered. It is revealed that because of the peculiarities arisen the thread-cutting conditions become tougher and bending loads in a tap operating arise.
Key words: : thread-cutting, ultra-small diameter, fine turning, cuttings section
S.A. Sheptunov, V.A. Logvin.INCREASE IN PRODUCTION RESOURCE OF TOOLS FOR AUTOMATED
The formation of wear areas on a tool changes power-, temperature and also accuracy quality charac-teristics of a treatment process. The distribution of al-lowance between technological transitions at the use of automated equipment brings the conditions of a cutting process closer to semifinish or finish ones that contributes to control effectively technological heredity. Work surface wear can be estimated through the time τ of a cutting process duration or through the length L of the way in the direction of cutting motion which allows predicting the increase in machining effectiveness based on a rational use of cutters properties. Breaking-in and steady wear at rotary cutting increase because of the increase of a cutting edge extension. The application of plasma nano-technologies in material treatment in a glow discharge in controlled gaseous medium allows carrying out changes in the structure on the surface of tools reducing the period of tool breaking-in and increasing a steady wear period because of the boundary layer reduction and grinding a source material grain for a specified depth of 0.2…03 mm, that is, commensurable with an optimum bevel edge of tool wear. Tools with continuous single renewal of a cutting edge at optimum wear can realize large ways of cutting L or time τ of a cutting process to carry out a travel of any size
Key words:resource, durability, updating rate of cutting edge, hardened layer depth, glow discharge, nano-technologies
M.Yu. Kulikov, V.E. Inozemtsev, M.G. Krukovich, Mo Naing U.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FORMING PROCESSES
AT ALUMINUM ALLOY TREATMENT
It is well known that machining aluminum and its alloys is accompanied by very considerable changes in quality parameters of parts surface layers which affect greatly performance attributes. The study of the machining conditions influence upon surface layer quality in parts allows defining optimum cutting pa-rameters and increasing performance attributes of many parts. It is well known that there are alternative methods of shaping which are a combined treatment which can include a mechanical, electrical and chemi-cal influence upon a surface worked.
Combined methods of treatment possess a wide range of controlled factors affecting a quality level of a surface formed and that is why they are convenient and effective in use during processes of shaping in parts made of difficult-to cut and heterogeneous materials.
As the investigation results have shown during edge cutting machining anodic-mechanical treatment in the course of cutting Al 2 and Al 3 silumins the oxides formation on the surface worked worsens considerably electro-chemical processes. Particularly it is significant at anodic dissolution of aluminum alloys having a high capacity to oxidation.
The method of electro-mechanical combined treatment allows managing qualitative indices in the course of surface shaping and as a result promoting the achievement of an essential level in quality parameters of a surface level.
Key words: aluminum alloys, combined treatment, methods, roughness, surface quality parameters, shaping
I.V. Tereshko, V.A. Logvin, V.M. Tereshko, S.A. Sheptunov.
MATERIAL MODIFICATION IN GLOW DISCHARGE
The development of new methods to improve physical and stress-strain properties of materials is an important contribution to the development of modern technologies and targeted control of their behavior. The optimum combination of stress-strain properties and electrical ones to improve performance attributes of materials is very important.
The basic purpose of this work is the study of long-term effects in materials resistivity changes after treatment in a glow discharge. There are presented the results of measurements of a resistivity relative value in copper-graphite insertions after a radiation treatment in a glow discharge. The graphic dependences obtained show that in the course of two years in samples a long-lived state, a structure of irradiated composite material remains. It is a sign of that the improvement of performance attributes of insertions investigated bears long-term character.
An anomalous temperature dependence of elec-tric resistance after an irradiation treatment if a glow discharge was detected in technical copper samples. First of all this anomaly manifests itself in copper resis-tivity decrease after an irradiation treatment at different temperatures obtained that is contrary to the fact determined of the simultaneous increase of dislocations density in samples irradiated
Key words: modification, depth of dislocation structure, plasma, glow discharge
M.Yu. Kulikov, M.A. Larionov, D.V. Gusev.SHAPING ERROR OF SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION AT USE
OF RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES
The purpose of the work was the study of error appearance in cylindrical surfaces at prototyping. To achieve the purposed specified there were developed sketches of parts of “cylinder” type. On the basis of the sketches there were created 3D computer models in the CAD medium. Cylinder growth took place at an angle of 90° to a basic surface of a working platform with a pitch of a platform z=50 mkm at the thickness of a layer hc=0.005 mkm. Among basic requirements made for cylinders under investigations consist in circularity and cylindrical shape and also surface layer quality according to an arithmetic mean of Ra. Parts were typed according to the technology of quick prototyping (Rapid Prototyping - RP) – Direct Light Projection – DLP of high-temperature resin.
To obtain data calculated there was used a simulator of A.I. Grabchenko which underwent some changes and was used for the technology of DLP rapid prototyping. For more accurate and deep investigations a coordinate measuring Metris LKV machine for the elevation of a surface layer quality was used.
It is evident from the results presented that at empirical investigations of a cylindrical surface grown according to the technology of DLP rapid prototyping and at the computation of shaping error the results convergence makes 96.6.3%.
Key words: prototyping, DLP, photopolymer, error, shaping
S.I. Dosko, A.A. Molchanov, A.R. Brenhaus, P.A. Bykov.MODAL VIBRATION DIAGNOSTICS OF LATHES DESIGNS
In the paper the problem of reasons elucidation in the matter of lathe instability at groove cross turning and boring is solved. As a tool for the analysis of a structure state there are used potentialities of modal monitoring, and in particular, a correlation of modal parameters, sets of proper characteristics of an elastic system (self-frequencies, modal coefficients damping and own forms of vibrations) of lathes designs with the state of bearings in spindle units. The application of a modal approach to the evaluation of a lathe design state or an elastic system is a new section in a dynamic analysis and may be called modal diagnostics. From the analysis of the modal parameter values of a lathe one traces their tie with the lathe design characteristics, and in particular, with the existence of sever rigidity anisotropy of a spindle unit front bearing and also with its insufficient tightness. Reasoning from the information mentioned of the modal parameters connection with the rigidity of a spindle unit front bearing and a state of bearing design the authors draw a conclusion of the technological state of a spindle unit design. In such a way, by the example of the design of two lathes in the paper there is shown a possibility of transition from experimental frequency characteristics through a procedure of modal diagnostics to the evaluation of the technological state of a spindle unit
Key words:modal vibration diagnostics, lathe, spindle unit, dynamic rigidity, own frequency, coefficient of modal damping, modal ductility
M.Yu. Kulikov, V.E. Inozemtsev, A.A. Bocharov, Myo Naing Oo.
PECULIARITIES IN SURFACE ROUGHNESS FORMATION AT ANODIC-MECHANICAL TREATMENT
The solution of problems belonging to assur-ance of high quality and accuracy of a surface at ma-chining in mechanical engineering was always one of the primary and priority tasks. A considerable part of all technological operations connected with shaping falls at machining. At that the operations connected with milling occupy a rather large share of all processes of machining in a variety of production branches. In the course of the study of shaping and aspects of quality formation at machining it is established that anodic-mechanical operation can promote effectively the quality increase of aluminum surface and its alloys at turning. Unlike turning at milling it is necessary to take into account other character of the interaction of a cutter with a surface worked and also the existence of some cutting edges which can contribute to the roughness growth at the macro-level.
A considerable influence upon quality of a sur-face under formation at aluminum alloy anodic milling have: materials of a work piece and a tool, technical and geometrical parameters of a tool, a milling direc-tion, scale formation, a magnitude of current and volt-age in the area of a contact of a tool and a work piece, the availability and a type of cutting emulsion (or a mixture and concentration of electrolyte), and also a way of its feed.
Key words:aluminum, milling, shaping, finishing, roughness, combined working, quality parameters, AMT
V.V. Pleshakov, S.M. Simanovsky, A.N. Shurpo.RELIABILITY INCREASE OF CYLINDERS SEALING ARRANGEMENTS
Wear of rubber sealing arrangements in cylin-ders depends on a number of design parameters and technological factors of working surfaces treatment. The dimension of detachable rubber particles reaches in some cases some millimeters. Such particles not only decrease cylinders reliability, but also result in a violation of efficiency of devices mating them. On the basis of the analysis of industrial experiment data are revealed the regularities of the wear products formation in rubber rings. By development testing there is shown high effectiveness in the application of the surface strengthening methods for cylinder working surfaces. The recommendations developed ensure the increase of error-free running time of cylinders 1.8-2 times
Key words::cylinders, sealing rings, wear, diamond smoothing, polishing (buffing)
METHODOLOGICAL FUNDMENTALS IN PARAMETERS STANDARDIZATION
OF MACHINE-TOOLS GEOMETRICAL ACCURACY
Machine-tools belong to the basic technological equipment in mechanical engineering ensuring the cre-ation of other machines with high accuracy and productivity unattainable in coming decades on the basis of additive techniques. Machining accuracy on machine-tools is an integral index of quality and de-spite the diversity of approaches to the identification of correlations, computations and estimates of machining accuracy, the value of a general error seems to be as a sum of partial errors. A significant part in the formation of a general error of machining cause machine-tools themselves. Besides, a significant role in assurance of guaranties for machine-tools users (operators) the standards for their geometrical accuracy play.
A significant problem having scientific and practical meaning is the absence of a single approach substantiated scientifically to the formation of a system of such standards both for machine-tools of new types, and for the revision of the system with actual standards on geometrical accuracy of machine-tools. In the paper there are offered methodological fundamentals for the parameters standardization of machine-tools geometrical accuracy on the basis of revealed interrelations between accuracy of units and parts surfaces machined at the use of a variational method for the computation of machines accuracy.
The practical use of the approach offered re-quires both the development of the variational method itself for the computation of machines accuracy in the field of obtaining corresponding estimates of accuracy of various surfaces machined, for example, deviations from parallelism of two faces and others, and thorough investigations of the structure of relationship equations themselves.
Key words:machine-tools, standardization, geometrical accuracy, shaping function
INFLUENCE OF USE COMPLETENESS OF ENGINEERING SYSTEM MODEL UPON ACCURACY AND ADEQUACY OF RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
An overall purpose of researches – improve-ment of assessment methods of engineering systems reliability at the stage of design.
To achieve the end specified within the bounds of the investigation there was established that one of the most significant factors defining the effectiveness of the reliability assessment at the stage of designing is the completeness of a model used. For the assessment of model completeness by the example of a failure tree it was offered to determine a correlation between levels of a logical model of reliability and kinds of engineer-ing consistency regulated by RSS 30709-2002 “Engi-neering Consistency. Terms and Definitions”. Within the bounds of the paper there is analyzed a minimum set of the sorts engineering consistency (dimensional consistency of system elements, compatibility of ele-ments according to reliability, interoperability) the ac-count of which requires various degrees of detailed elaboration of a model and supposes the existence of corresponding source data including those established at the identification of logic connections between fail-ures and the analysis of possible failures caused by a common reason.
For the systematization of research results there is developed a matrix of correlation of analyzed kinds of engineering consistency with the levels of a failure tree and the values of the assessment of a quadratic means of deviation (QMD) of expected results. The mathematical dependences allowing the definition of QMD values at every level of the logic model of relia-bility are developed. To account for the progressive-ness of a QMD value at the decrease of assessment reliability by analogy with Taguchi function of losses it is offered to use a parabolic dependence. The approach offered is particularly urgent for methods where the accuracy of results obtained determines the degree of a risk of manufacturers caused by wrong or untimely management or technical decision-makings. The trend of risk changes for manufacturers depending on QMD of a resultant value allows explaining diagrams presented in the paper.
The results obtained explain the dependence of accuracy and reliability of a reliability assessment on the completeness of use of the model and show a trend of the influence of parameters pointed out upon risk probability of manufacturers at the decision-making at the stage of designing.
Key words:reliability, accuracy, adequacy, engineering consistency, failure tree, quality
Ńomputer engineering and information technology
A.A. Kolpakov, Yu.A. Kropotov.EXTENDED ALGORITHM OF AUDIO STREAMS MIXING
FOR MULTIPROCESSOR DEVICES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
In this paper is presented an extended algorithm of audio streams mixing for computations on graphic processors which combines many stages of mixing by means of two-pass rendering use which reduces con-siderably switching time between buffers.
By the method of experimental computer com-parative researches was carried out the assessment of the algorithm developed productivity. The results of investigations have shown that the application of the algorithm developed results in computation productivi-ty increase up to six times
Key words:GPGPPU, parallel computations, heterogeneous computer systems, graphic processors, audio data mixing
T.V. Karlova, N.M. Kuznetsova, A.Yu. Bekmeshov.
MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING USING AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPTIMUM STRUCTURE CHOICE FOR GROUND-SURFACE
The article is devoted to the application of a special software complex for the definition of an opti-mum set of means of urban public ground-surface conveyances.
In the paper are presented the existing software solu-tions meant for the definition of an optimum route, their basic merits and demerits are revealed, the meth-ods for the solution of a problem in search of an opti-mum set of means of ground surface public convey-ance taking into account a maximum amount of factors affecting a motion speed are offered.
The authors have presented a structure of an automated system for a choice of an optimum structure in ground surface public conveyances and also there are shown fragments of a corresponding program code and database queries.
In the paper particular attention is paid to the working modes of an appendix presented, in particular, for the situation in the absence of customer’s device connection to the basic computer system
Key words:automation, navigation, decision-making, public conveyances, app to smartphone
V.V. Kolyakin, V.I. Averchenkov, M.V. Terekhov. METHODS FOR MODELS PARAMETERS ESTIMATE TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
ON 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF REAL OBJECTS COMPLEX MODELS
Virtual three-dimensional (3 D) models of com-plex objects are used in many fields of science and engineering, such as architecture, industry, medicine, robotics. Besides, 3D models are used in geo-information systems, computer games, virtual and supplemented reality and so on.
Three dimensional models can be formed in dif-ferent ways, one of which consists in 3 D reconstruc-tion. One of the stages of the 3 D reconstruction of complex models of real objects is a definition of the mathematical models of geometric primitives empha-sized on the image. One of the ways for the estimate of model parameters is a method of Hough vote and its modifications – Hough probabilistic transformation, Hough random transformation, Hough hierarchical transformation, phase space blurriness, use of a gradi-ent of image brightness and so on.
As an alternative way for models selection is a choice of suitable points from a set of data
Key words:characteristic points, models parameters, Hough vote method, M-estimate function, outputs on images, least-squares method, RANSAC, AVLESAC, MLESAC, M – SAC, MAPSAC, R – RANSAC, ARSAC
S.M. Ivanova, Z.V. Ilichenkova.SYSTEM OF RETRIEVAL AND ANALYSIS OF RELIABLE
INFORMATION IN INTERNET NETWORK
Now in the world a problem of reliable infor-mation retrieval in the Internet network is especially critical. It is defined by increased data capacity and by the absence of control over data placement. It is offered to determine information reliability by methods of fuzzy logic at the correct formation of retrieval request. For the estimate of completeness, truth and integrity of data obtained it is offered to rely upon the analysis of information from other pages of a site found. In accordance with this the notions of topical closeness of site pages and reliability of information presented in the remaining sections. To organize an output are compiled the rules for the integral reliability output of a site page. For example, if information on a page does not coincide with analyzed one and is reliable then one can suppose that related information is reliable. Further, with the use of Mam-dani controller is carried out a defuzzification. A technology for a retrieval request organization is offered to increase an information content retrieval. The technologies offered for retrieval and analysis of information allow increasing effectiveness and a retrieval rate of reliable, integrated and true in-formation in the Internet network
Key words:: retrieval in the Internet network, information reliability, searching tools, fuzzy logic, site integral re-liability
Economics and management
A.A. Prokopets, T.N. Prokopets.
ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATIONAL MECHANISM AS ELEMENT
IN TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS QUALITY MANAGEMENT
BY INFLUENCE UPON HUMAN ELEMENT
The purpose of researches was an analysis of a motivational mechanism as an element of quality management in a technological process by means of the influence upon human element.
To achieve a purpose set there were solved the following problems:
- the analysis of basic factors defining techno-logical process quality was carried out (taking into ac-count human element influence upon a production process);
- the influence of a motivational mechanism upon quality of a production process of vibro-mechanical treatment of parts.
On the basis of work results there were offered additional professional competences of a processing engineer and an operator of metal-working machinery. The model of a compensating simulation of the mechanism for workers motivation is developed and a formula for its definition is offered
Key words:quality management, technological process, human element, motivational mechanism, vibro-mechanical treatment, compensating simulation
NEW PARADIGM IN ECONOMICS EVOLUTION
In the paper it is emphasized that in the course of the last three decades became stronger the dynamics of the development of all economic processes in society and under conditions of current economic changes realization come the first place not the tools of development, but new economic concepts. A generation of economic concepts of the present is presented. A current stage of society development raises new conditions and problems the solution of which requires conceptual breaks for the formation and realization of a new mechanism for a economy sustainable development and also new tools in a global integrated market which could embrace all variety of indices on the basis of their optimization of correspondence to market relations.
The authors have moved a regulation of a necessity and possibility to develop a new concept and new tools on a global level within the bounds of a “unified theory of market corres-pondence
Key words:economy, economics, concepts generation, sustainable development, optimization, integration, market
PROBLEMS IN INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM CHEMICAL
COMPLEX IN SAMARA REGION
The structure of the petroleum chemical complex in the Samara region is presented. Basic indices of the petroleum chemical complex development in the region in 2014-2015 are analyzed. Key purposes and problems in the strategy of the Samara region development under current conditions are emphasized.
Some methods to support further a positive dy-namics in the development of petroleum industry are offered
Key words:petroleum industry, Samara region, oil-producing region, petroleum chemical complex, innovation solution
V.V. Yevenko, V.Yu. Soladatenkov.ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS - ANCHOR OR TOWBOAT FOR ECONOMY?
Modern economic institutes, in particular, insti-tutes of state-private partnership and insolvency and their influence upon ensuring a stable qualitative de-velopment of national economy are under considera-tion.
Institutes come out as fundamental factors of functioning economic systems in long-term and medi-um-term prospects. Market forces cannot function efficiently in inadequate and uncontrollable environ-ment inasmuch as the operation of such forces is contradictory and frequently couter-productive.
Under a state-private partnership is understood a system of relations between a state sector (state or municipal authorities) and a private sector (business) legally and institutionally secured with the purpose of the development of socially and strategically meaningful branches of national economy to protect social interests and to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises at the heart of which underlying principles of equal rights, rational partnership, distri-bution of risks and proceeds, joint operations of state and private sectors.
The institution of insolvency (bankruptcy) is one of the most complicated institutions of market (mixed) economy as it combines in itself the compo-nents of cost-effectiveness and social trend.
Russia must have effective economic institu-tions including those of state-private partnership and insolvency (bankruptcy) for the transition from a model of an overtaking growth to the model of advanced development.
Key words:institution, state-private partnership, SPP, insolvency, bankruptcy, insolvent
V.I. Kruglov, O.A. Gorlenko, V.V. Miroshnikov, N.M. Borbats, T.P. Mozhaeva.
REGULATORY-DOCUMENTATION SUPPORT OF QUALITY IN TRAINING
OF HIGHLY QUALIFIED STAFF
The problems of control and evaluation of high-er education quality (training of highly qualified staff) are under consideration. Quality in the training of post graduate students, certainly, depends upon curriculum quality. Thereupon there are considered systems of indices and criteria with the aid of which one can de-fine the degree of results achieved in this field in an educational institution. Such a circuit provides 7 indi-ces and 37 criteria. For each criterion there is shown the totality of documents and materials confirming their fulfillment.
The subjects of curricula control and assessment are, in particular: the curriculum structure, the results of its mastering by students; the conditions of curricula realization in an educational institution, their regulatory, procedural, resource, personnel and financial support. That is, the degree of curricula correspondence to the requirements of Federal State Educational Standards is defined and also to the requirements of a physical and legal person in the interests of which the educational activity is carried out. In this connection the introduction in practice of regulatory-documentation support of curricula state accreditation (a list of essential documents is shown) is significant.
The educational process organization in accord-ance with the principles under consideration, no doubt, will allow improving highly qualified staff training
Key words:quality, training of staff of highest quality, curriculum for post graduate courses, regulatory-information support, criteria of curricula assessment
A.V. Florov, A.V. Zaletsky, R.A. Urvantsev.
INVESTIGATIONS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS IN REMOTE SENSING APPLICATION BASED ON PILOTLESS AVIATION SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING TOWN NEEDS
In the paper is considered a possibility of re-mote sensing application on the basis of pilotless avia-tion systems for management and monitoring needs and the substantiation of cost-effectiveness of these measures. The investigation is based on the own long-term skill of practical operation of Supercam pilotless air-survey complexes and also on the analysis of mar-ket and cases with the successful use of results of the Earth pilotless remote sensing for town needs. A current market of the Earth pilotless remote sensing in Russia, suppliers and consumers of this service are analyzed. Besides, in this paper are considered kinds of payload specified for a pilotless vehicle (PV) for the Earth remote sensing, potentialities of modern systems. There is carried a computation of costs for the formation of a data support department of remote sensing with PV and assurance of its functioning in the course of a year for needs of a municipal district. An example of the successful use of pilotless aerial photography for the needs of the Zvenigorod municipal formation. The cost-effectiveness of new technology introduction is proved. The data advantages of the Earth remote sens-ing with high resolution for effective management so-lution-making in municipal formations are shown
Key words:cost-effectiveness, management, monitoring, pilotless vehicle (PV) of remote sensing, PVRS
Tribune of the international youth open forum
Zhao Yajuan, Fu Cong.PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AS PRACTICE BASIS
In the paper is made an attempt to consider professional environment as a basis for practice under conditions of a modern high dynamic society for which there were considered not only theoretical aspects of a corresponding range of questions, but a current practice by the example of higher professional education in China. The first part of the paper is devoted to the consideration of perception categories, knowledge, and intelligence in scientific sources. The second part of the paper touches upon the questions of the education influence upon a profession choice. In the third part of the paper the process of higher education perfection in the CPR on the basis of the university number dynamics, the number of students and lecturers, university entrants, school-leavers and a number of other indices is considered. As a result of the analysis carried out it is possible to draw a conclusion of that the higher education in China has passed a long way of development and at the same time have grown its quantitative indices and last but not least qualitative ones
Key words:professional environment, labor motivation, practice, professional growth, higher education, China
Wang Zhiyong.INFORMATION AS INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT
The paper deals with the problems of intellectual development of the society expressed in factors of intellectual employment of population in the sphere of science intensive branches of industrial production on the basis of the classification and systematization of information, its transfer connected with functions of management. Factors characterizing distinguishing features of human intelligence to which belong: a working memory structure, prognostication possibility, altruistic help, logic, a multilevel hierarchical system for useful information selection and consciousness are considered.
To date information ties arising between specific people are saturated extremely with communication. In this connection as the bears of displayed objective reality which arises as a result of the interaction of certain sub-groups of persons and also professional communities can be apprehended from the point of the whole mankind.
For the same reason arise regulative functions depending upon this result (in a behavioral reaction to professional activities and decision-making of large quantities of people) and practically there are no limits in information conservation by human civilization.
Key words:information, management, intelligence, perception, cognitive thinking, prediction, information processing, automation
R.R. Anamova, S.A. Leonova, T.I. Mirolyubova, A.V. Ripetsky, T.M. Khvesyuk.INNOVATIONS IN PROCEDURE OF TRAINING ON ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
The necessity of changes in the procedure of teaching the subject “Engineering Graphics” in engi-neering colleges taking into account current require-ments to graduates’ knowledge is substantiated. The innovations in this field are described. By the compo-site author is developed the didactic material for the course “Engineering Graphics and Descriptive Geome-try” containing tasks for self-dependent work of stu-dents and for a work in a class-room. The structure of didactic material includes some blocks the subject-matter of which is divided on topics.
The didactic material is approved at the teaching of such subjects as “Engineering Graphics”, “Engineering and Computer Graphics”, “Engineering Graphics and Descriptive Geometry” in the Moscow Aircraft Institute (National Research University). The application of the developed didactic material on engineering graphics contributed to the students’ progress improvement and quality increase in mastering teaching material.
Key words:engineering graphics, descriptive geometry, computer graphics, didactic material, teaching procedure
Cong Faugh, Yajuan Zhao.
MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE BIPOLAR WORLD
Key factors of historical development of man-kind at the present stage are the science and technical progress. On the basis of the analysis of approaches in understanding of science and technical progress an attempt of modern judgment of scientific and technical progress which is more oriented to requirements and interests of the specific person acting as the main consumer of progress is made. Besides, requirements serve as incentives which determine a vector and speed of development of scientific and technical progress.
Modern large-scale technical progress leads to emergence of the most various ethical problems worldwide. However in relation to People's Republic of China ethical problems of technical progress have some features. They are connected first of all with the fact that technical progress not only cardinally changes the tenor of life of huge number of people which developed in millennia, but also calls into question the traditional principles of management of society.
Within preparation of a personnel (intellectual) resource the undoubted positive fact is stability of high level of training with use of new approaches to train-ing.
Key words:social approach, scientific and technical progress, vital interests of the person
SYSTEM TIES INVESTIGATION IN MATTERS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND NA
For today the problem of man and nature unity and also social ecology under conditions of crisis ag-gravation takes on special significance. The problem in comprehension of the harmonic interaction between nature and man is a task which the mankind solves in the course of its history of cultural self-knowledge.
A technosphere created artificially by the end of the XX-th century became adequate to the earth’s bio-sphere. It is human activity that aggravated all existing ecological problems forced to form a hierarchy of val-ues acting in the society.
The paper reports the methods to solve the problems of ecological safety by the example of the People’s Republic of China.
A current state of ecological environment in China is one of the urgent problems facing the country responsible for people’s health. The reason in ecologi-cal situation worsening in China depends on a number of factors: soil erosion, environment pollution with waste products, air pollution, noise pollution and so on.
In order to stop worsening an ecological situa-tion in China it is necessary to take measures immedi-ately for ecology protection
Key words:management, economic systems, ecological safety, nature conservation, social ecology, socium, technosphere
OPTIMIZATION OF METHODS FOR OBTAINING INFORMATION IN MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL RESOURCES
The paper reports the problems in the manage-ment of the selection and personnel resource training at the enterprises of economically developed countries of the East and the West. The Japanese and American approaches to the field of personnel management with the purpose of new models formation for the optimiza-tion of a personnel management system at Chinese enterprises are analyzed. The world economic crisis sped up a critical phase in the creation of a new pro-spection. On the basis of the comparative analysis of existing approaches in the field of personnel resources training management, and also optimizing methods in the management of personnel selection and training there was offered a model for the optimization of a personnel management system at Chinese enterprises. With the purpose of the development of a managerial influence upon personnel selection and training at Chi-nese enterprises were developed basic criteria for esti-mation. At the same time the decision-making oriented towards an enterprise interests must take into account interdependency between a decision made, motivation and estimate of management activity
Key words:management systems, information support, optimization, competences, personnel resources