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Journal "Vestnik BSTU" ¹ 4 (52) 2016

Founder is the federal State budgetary
Educational Institution Higher Professional
Education "Bryansk State Technical University"

Chairman of Editorial Council – O.N. Fedonin, D.Eng., Prof.

Vice-Chairman of Editorial Council – S.P. Sazonov, Can.Eng., Prof.

Editorial Council:
V.I. Averchenkov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
A.Yu. Albagachiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
A.P. Babichev, D.Eng., Prof., (Rostov-upon-Don)
V.F. Bezyazychny, D.Eng., Prof., (Rybinsk)
D.R. Blurtsyan, D.Eng., Prof., (Sweden)
A. Bukhach, D.Eng., Prof., (Poland)
L.G. Vainer, D.Eng., Assistant Prof., (Khabarovsk)
O.A. Gorlenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.D. Erokhin, PhD.Econ., Prof., (Bryansk)
A.G. Ivakhnenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Kursk)
S.A. Klimenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Ukraine)
V.V. Kobishchanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
I.S. Konstantinov, D.Eng., Prof., (Belgorod)
B.Ya. Mokritsky, D.Eng., Prof., (Komsomolsk-upon Amur)
D.I. Petreshin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.B. Protasiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Tula)
A. Pester, D.Eng., Prof., (Austria)
L.A. Savin, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
V.P. Smolentsev, D.Eng., Prof., (Voronezh)
D.L. Solovyov, D.Eng., Prof., (Murom)
Yu.S. Stepanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
A.G. Suslov, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
A.V. Khandozhko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
M.L. Kheifits, D.Eng., Prof., (Belarus)
A.S. Yanyushkin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bratsk)

Editorial board:

Editor-in-chief
A.V. Kirichek, D.Eng., Prof.

Deputy editor-in-chief
A.V. Morozova, Can.Sociol. Sc.

Executive secretary
V.A. Tatarintsev, Can.Eng.

Proof-reader – V.A. Yerokhina

Editor – M.L. Shcherbakova

Registration certificate
by Federal Service for Supervision of Legislation
in Mass Media and the protection of cultural heritage
PI ¹ FS77-21709 August 17, 2005

Address editorial office:
7, Bulvar 50-letiya Oktyabrya,
Bryansk, 241035, Russian Federation
tel. (4832) 58-82-77
e - mail: vestnik@tu-bryansk.ru

The subscription index of catalogue
“Russia press” - 18945 semi-annual,
15621 – annual.

It is issued in February 2004.
4 numbers a year

CONTENTS

Friction and wear

A.I. Kumenko, N.Yu. Kuzminykh. USE OF OIL FILM PROPERTIES AT DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF COMPAX® SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING AND TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS One of key factors at the vibration reliability support of turbo-sets in operation – a correct design of journal bearings, and also the assurance of supporting system normal operation during a life cycle of a unit with possibility to control basic technical parameters characterizing a technical state. To solve this problem first of all a method for the permanent control of gaps in bearings and also static and dynamic forces affecting every bearing is required. In accordance with new RSS 55263-2012 gaps and shaft misalignments are to be controlled with the aid of two couples of shaft sensors for every supporting bearing. For the evolvement of forces affecting bearings it is necessary to solve the equations of lubrication in supporting bearings. In this work there is offered a method which allows carrying out all hydro-dynamic computations in advance. In the mode of real-time for the forces definition it is offered to use the interpolation on ready computation results. To realize this task there are formed fields of possible movements (FPM) of shaft journals in each bearing taking into account single geometrical peculiarities and actual gaps. In the FPM there is formed a grid and for every grid node a computation of essential static and dynamic characteristics is carried out, and the results are saved in a database. In a real-time mode according to the known position of a journal in a gap one defines a point in the FPM and essential characteristics are interpolated. In such a way are calculated all necessary characteristics of a bearing: vertical and horizontal loads, loss power for friction, mean temperature of lubrication in a lubricating oil wedge, a minimum gap, stiffness and damping coefficients. This information of a bearing state is necessary for the diagnostics of a technical state of a turbo-set, and it is impossible to obtain with the aid of common means of control existing at an electric power station. In the paper there is shown an example of FPM formation and a computation of basic static characteristics for an elliptical bearing throughout the entire field of possible movements. The analysis of the influence of gaps deviations from nominal values defined by repair lists is presented. The notion of the field of possible movements is introduced beyond which one diagnoses an abnormal mode of a turbo-set operation characterized by increased temperatures of lubricant or babbit and/or grazes. The methods for the computation of slider bearing characteristics throughout the whole of the field of possible movements with the possibility of smooth interpolation are developed for the application in the real-time diagnostic system of COMPAXâ.
Key words: slider bearing, hydro-dynamic theory of lubrication, turbo-set, triangulation, interpolation, technical diagnostics, technological dispersion, oil film

A.O. Gorlenko, A.N. Yerokhin.WEAR-RESISTANCE INCREASE IN SURFACES OF SPHERICAL SLIDING BEARINGS
A technology of plasma finishing strengthening with multi-layer nano-coating of Si-O-C-N system in the context of strengthening of friction surfaces in spherical sliding bearings is considered. The tribological characteristics of an applied wear-resistant antifriction coating which condition on wear-resistance increase in spherical sliding bearings are investigated
Key words: wear-resistance, multi-layer antifriction coating, friction surface, spherical sliding bearing, plasma strengthening

A.E. Mironov, I.S. Gershman, E.I. Gershman.NEW ALUMINUM ANTIFRICTION ALLOYS INSTEAD OF BRONZES FOR MONOMETALLIC BEARINGS OPERATING UNDER CONDITIONS OF BOUNDARY FRICTION
In the paper there is presented an investigation on the subject of the substitution of materials used for manufacturing monometallic one-piece sliding bear-ings. The most widely used material for their manufac-turing is bronze of BrO4Ts4$17 grade which has rather high values of antifriction and strength properties. A whole complex of materials based on aluminum alloys is under consideration. There were investigated eight experimental alloys different with chemistry. In the paper there is described a procedure for carrying out experimental investigations. The comparative tables of the influence of these or those elements upon tribologi-cal properties are shown. An evident advantage of alu-minum alloys over a compared material – bronze of BrO4Ts4S17 grade is identified. The following tribo-technical properties of experimental alloys such as score-resistance, conformability, durability, frictional moment are considered
Key words: aluminum antifriction alloys, bronze, stress-strain properties, strength, hardness, tribotechnical properties, conformability, score-resistance, durability, secondary structures

I.S. Gershman, E.I. Gershman, A.I. Mironov.USE OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS AND THEORY OF SELF-ORGANIZATION FOR TRIBOSYSTEMS DESCRIPTION AND WEAR-RESISTANT MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
In the paper there is presented a practical use of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and theory of self-organization in tribology with obtaining certain results particularly at the development of new wear-resistant materials. Wear intensity decreases with the decrease of manufacturing entropy. There are shown the results of the applied investigations of non-equilibrium thermody-namics and the theory of self-organization conformably to friction. Possible states of a body of friction with equal power imparted to a body from the point of view of en-tropy are considered. There are shown practical examples of wear intensity decrease by the example of sliding electrical contacts and antifriction alloys for sliding bearings. The results of the development of antifriction aluminum alloys made simultaneously on the basis of seven-nine alloying elements are considered. Besides, in experimental alloys there were added silicon, magnesium, zinc, titanium, that allowed decreasing wear intensity by about two times and decreasing tin content in an alloy by 1.5 – 2 times.
Key words: : friction, theory of self-organization, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, dissipative structures

A.V. Ivanov. INFLUENCE OF GAP FORM IN NON-CONTACT SEAL OF HIGH-SPEED TURBOMACHINE UPON ITS PARAMETERS
Consolidation is one of the most significant el-ements in any turbomachine defining both economy and capacity for work of a unit. In high-speed pumps and turbines which belong turbo-pump units (TPU) of liquid-propellant engines (LPE) to, one uses mainly non-contact seals and in the first place groove seals. A radial seal gap its value and a form is a basic factor defining parameters and characteristics of sealing. In the paper there is shown the influence of geometrical characteristics of a non-contact seal gap in a high-speed turbomachine upon its characteristics. The influ-ence of the form of a sealing gap upon carrying capacity in it is analyzed that is particularly significant at the definition of seal influence upon critical frequencies of rotor rotation. The mutual misalignments in rotor and stator elements of a seal result in rotor stability reduction, the occurrence of additional radial loads upon bearings. Deviations in a surface form and deformations of sealing elements result in the pressure redistribution in a seal gap that, in its turn, changes forces character affecting a rotor from the side of a seal and, hence, its dynamic characteristics. The analysis of the influence upon carrying capacity in a seal gap of such factors as ellipse, obliquity, barreling, saddling is carried out. The results shown in the paper allow defining the tolerances influence upon manufacturing and deformations of sealing elements upon dynamic characteristics of a high-speed turbomachine rotor at the stage of designing a “rotor-bearings-seals” system
Key words: noncontact seal, gap form, carrying capacity, misalignment, obliquity, ellipse

M.V. Zernin, N.N. Rybkin. INFLUENCE OF RADIAL COMPLIANCE OF SURFACES UPON HYDRODYNAMICS PARAMETERS OF CYLINDRICAL SLIDING BEARINGS
The procedure and results of calculated re-searches of hydrodynamics parameters in cylindrical sliding bearings taking into account radial compliance of surfaces are shown. The radial compliance of bear-ing structural elements is taken into account on the basis of the hypothesis of Winkler’s reason. The ex-amples of hydrodynamics computations of a particular bearing at manufacturing an antifriction layer of metal or composite material with a polymeric matrix are shown. At the same time a modulus of elasticity of an antifriction layer was being changed from 2.43 to 63 MΠa, a total rate of radial compliance was changing from 0 to 40.6•10-14m3/H. The analysis of radial compliance influence upon a minimum thickness of an oil layer and maximum pressure in it is carried out
Key words: slider bearing, hydrodynamics parameters, finite element method, radial compliance of surfaces, hypothesis of Winkler reason, polymeric antifriction layer

V.P. Tikhomirov, À.G. Stryzhenok, V.Î.Korchagin, Î.V. Izmerov.METHOD LOCOMOTIVE WHEELSLIP PREDICTION BY ANALYZING CHARACTERISTICS CONTACT WHEEL AND RAIL
IThe problems of the analytical analysis of the contact wheel and rail to meet the challenges of energy efficiency increase of the locomotive effect of the magnetic field on the contact zone. By comparing, the profiles of equations and their derivatives are defined in terms of contact with the rail wheels. Obtained geo-metric parameters of the wheel profile with contact rail profile
Key words: modeling, macro geometry, wheel set, wheel and rail profile, the contact surface area of the magnetic field

A.V. Yakovlev, M.V. Zernin. INFLUENCE OF BABBIT RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTY UPON STRESSES IN ANTIFRICTION LAYER OF SLIDER BEARING
The procedure for tests of contact creep in ring bearing-samples is developed and also a generalized diagram of residual stresses formation after babbitting and machining a babbit layer in bearings is obtained. It is shown that the existence of a cyclic deformation of an antifriction layer results in a complete relaxation of the sum of all constant constituents of residual stresses. It is concluded that the main reason of the dissi-pation of strength characteristics in babbit samples consists in rheological properties of this material
Key words: bearing, babbit, sample, creep, strength, tests

M.B. Borodina. FRICTION INFLUENCE IN KINEMATIC PAIRS OF HYDROMECHANICAL CLUTCH WITH DIFFERENTIAL DRIVING GEAR UPON DYNAMICS OF ITS OPERATION
Hydromechanical clutches with a differential driving gear can protect against sudden quickly grow-ing short-term overloads not related to emergency without triggering at the expense of a smooth moment increase on a shaft of the engine provided with the operation of hydro-elastic elements in the hydrosystem of a clutch. The investigation of the friction influence in kinematic pairs of hydromechanical clutches with heli-cal and toothed differential driving gears upon the dy-namics of clutch operation during emergency triggering has shown that in a helical driving gear the kinetic friction in a spline connection and in a pair of “screw-nut” increases a moment on a shaft of an electric motor overloading it longer than it is admissible. It means, that such a type of clutches may be used only as elastic-damping one decreasing the dynamics of the whole dynamic system at the expense of high friction in kinematic pairs, or jointly with the protection on current as a smooth increase of a moment on a shaft of the electric motor even at the overload increasing in spurts ensured by a clutch increases protection efficiency on current. In the toothed driving gear friction in kinetic pairs is low and a driving gear does not actually experience an overload that means high efficiency of driving gear protection against rapidly growing random overloads with such a type of clutches
Key words: hydromechanical clutch, kinematic pairs, differential driving gear, simulator, alarm triggering, drive protection

V.P. Tikhomirov, M.A. Izmerov.LEAKAGE THROUGH FACE SEAL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT CORRUGATION AND ROUGHNESS
The procedure is developed for the assessment of joint impermeability in a metal-metallic split perma-nent connection on the basis of a two-level model of a contact interaction in engineering surfaces where the leakage in sealing environment is defined by a sum of leakages through a joint of corrugated surfaces defined by corrugation parameters and leakage through porous medium formed by a contact of rough surfaces on contour areas of a contact
Key words: impermeability, face seal, leakage, filtration, porosity, contact interaction, fractal dimension

Mechanical engineering and engineering science

B.I. Borovsky.ENERGY EFFICIENCY INCREASE OF ROTARY PUMP BY CONVERGENCY INTRODUCTION OF WHEEL INTER-BLADE CANAL
The paper reports the substantiation of possibil-ity rotary pump efficiency increase in view of hydraulic losses decrease in a centrifugal wheel at the expense of convergence introduction in its inter-blade canal. Besides losses decrease in a pump the transition to a convergent flow in a centrifugal wheel allows using the model of ideal liquid flow that was impossible at liquid flow in a diffusion inter-blade canal of a wheel providing mainly for an empirical direction of investigations. The convergence introduction, as it was shown by experiments, exceeds pump efficiency by 19% and pressure by 74% at the decrease of pulsation and vibrations of a pump that lightens the work of bearings. Theoretical investigations and experimental data have shown that at the convergent inter-blade canal of a wheel at the pump energy efficiency increase there is a situation of a flow different from the flow in the diffusion inter-blade canal. In such a way, the coefficient of the influence of a finite number of blades exceeds a unit, the angle of flow deviation at the wheel outlet takes a negative value (an angle of flow exceeds a blade-exit angle) and a theoretical pressure turns out to be higher considerably of a theoretical pressure at an infinite number of blades
Key words: rotary pump, energy efficiency, convergent wheel, inter-blade canal, fluid flow, efficiency

I.A. Rudakov. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS PROBLEM OF HETEROGENEOUS STRING FORCED OSCILLATIONS EQUATION WITH BOUNDARY CONDITION OF THE THIRD TYPE
The problem of time periodic solutions of a wave equation with floating factors of a general type and a specified periodic driving force is considered. In case of homogeneous boundary conditions of the third type and Dirichlet the existence of a denumerable number of periodic solutions at the condition that a nonlinear item has a power growth without the assumption of monotony is proved
Key words: wave equation, variational method, even functional disturbance

M.A. Guriyanov, A.A. Kozhukhov. CHOICE OF NECLEUS FUNCTION FOR PROBLEM COMPUITATION OF STEEL MOTION IN LIQUID PHASE IN VESSEL WITH OPEN WALL THROUGH SPH METHOD
Recently the method of smoothed particle hy-drodynamics developed rapidly and was already used for the solution of a wide spectrum of scientific-engineering problems in the fields of astrophysics, hy-drodynamics, gasdynamics and so on. Besides, there were solved many problems on liquid motion in a ves-sel with an open wall. But at the solution of specific problems typical for the field of metallurgy, simulators created with the aid of the method shown may behave unstably. Models instability is characterized with an une-ven distribution of liquid in a vessel and particles pene-tration through rigid walls and with the isolation of particles from a basic mass of liquid. The particles iso-lation from the mass of liquid and the entrainment of surrounding particles with it results in non-physical behavior of liquid and, as a consequence, in wrong results of computation. This paper reports the analysis of the applica-tion of nucleus different functions to the computation of a density value for the problem solution of particle isolation from the basic mass of liquid and their en-trainment of surrounding particles with them. For re-sults check a model of liquid steel oscillation in a steel-ladle on the basis of the method of particles smoothing was used
Key words: smoothed particles hydrodynamics, viscosity, nucleus function, smoothing length, liquid phase, density

E.V. Mishchenko, V.Ya. Mishchenko. NEW APPROACHES TO DESIGNING VIBRATORY TECHNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE IN FOOD AND PROCESSING INDUSTRY
In the paper there are considered new approaches to designing equipment allowing intensifying technological processes. Among different forms of mechanical effects upon dispersion systems used in technological processes of food and processing industry, vibration occupies a significant place as one of the most efficient means for the creation of an essential dynamic state in dispersion systems. The application of vibration equipment allows improving principally common technological processes and developing new ones. At the same time many processes are accelerated dozens of times. Vibration machines are considerably simpler and more efficient than common ones and consume less power. Alongside with the technological processes intensification at the vibration impact upon material worked the final product quality is also improved. On the basis of the results in theoretical and ex-perimental investigations with the use of a mechatron-ics approach at designing the authors have developed an automated complex for manufacturing a pectin concentrate from beet pulp through the method of vibratory extraction functioning on the basis of a module principle, and also the technology is offered allowing the realization of this process. At that the extracting degree increased by 30-35% in comparison with analogues and the period of extracting fulfillment decreased up to 30-35 min. In such a way, using mechanotronic approaches to the creation of technological vibratory machines containing the methods for dynamic systems formation taking into account inseparable ties with mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and heat-mass exchanging processes, the theory of automated control and current micro-controller means of control one can speak about the creation of a fundamentally new direction at designing vibratory technique for food and processing industry
Key words: vibratory technique, vibration, mechatronics, extracting, pectin

S.V. Kuznetsova. SYSTEM OF AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY OF PARTS: ANALYSIS IN PHASE SPACE
A process of the functioning of a system of au-tomated parts assemblage can be presented in a phase space. Any way of assemblage, irrespective of a struc-tural scheme, physical nature of power impacts, a method of parts motion control is characterized by a motion of assembly components throughout a path of combination. Hence, the coordinates of position adap-tation and their derivatives allow obtaining a common geometrical image of an assembly system. A state of the relative position and orientation of parts connected in a phase space at any time period during an operation is shown by phase trajectories. A value set of initial mismatch of parts condi-tions on a set of phase trajectories, that is, a phase portrait of an adaptation method under consideration. A graphical image of changes in the state of a common position of parts allows introducing quantitative criteria for the evaluation of the quality of this method and, therefore, for the comparative analysis of different methods
Keywords: automated assemblage, adaptation coordinate of part position, criteria of effectiveness evaluation, mathe-matical modeling, transition process, process of functioning, phase-plane portrait, phase space

A.L. Simakov, S.V. Kuznetsova, A.N. Rozhkov. EFFICIENCY INDICES OF METHODS AND MEANS IN AUTOMATED PARTS ASSEMBLY
The efficiency assessment of methods and means of automated assembly is necessary at the de-velopment of means for automated technological operations. As a rule, one uses efficiency indices in design options of automated assembly devices. In the paper there are offered efficiency criteria for methods and means of automated assembly which can be used at the stages of designing assembly devices. The efficiency of an automated parts combination is defined mainly by the indices of carrying out the stages of position adaptation of parts to be connected. As criteria for the comparison of algorithms of combining there are offered characteristics of program trajectories of matching ensured by that or other adaptation way. At the development of a structure chart of the device as a main index is a controllability of the device expressed by the smallest value of the own frequency of the device according to the coordinates of adaptation. At the final stage of the development of design variants of the device as a criterion there is offered the application of the ratio of structural elements rigidity of an adjusting surface to the shown rigidity of a shifting element including also the rigidity of a part to be connected
Key words: : part orientation, angular matching, adapting device, automated assembly, efficiency indices

V.V. Miroshnikov, N.M. Borbats.DESIGN OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROCESSES BASED ON QFD METHOD
The creation and introduction of the efficient quality management system (QMS) is impossible with-out the management realization of its processes, one of key elements in which is designing. And upon that how well is a process designed will the efficiency depend both of the process itself and the whole of the system of interrelated processes a part of which it is. To in-crease the design efficiency of quality management processes the methodology of quality function defini-tion – QFD is offered for use. At the first stage of its realization in processes of quality management it is necessary to determine the demands made to the pro-cess under development. For that, in its turn, it is nec-essary to identify process outlets and basic users of its results. Because of the peculiarities in quality man-agement processes the demands to them should be compiled being guided mainly by corresponding regu-latory documentation regulating both processes outlets and methods of their carrying out. The requirements revealed further with the aid of a matrix diagram are transformed into parameters subjected to the control in the course of a process ful-fillment. At the next stage for the most critical parame-ters of the process there are defined corresponding kinds of management which is also carried out on the basis of a matrix program. Finally, for the kinds of control revealed at the previous stage one selects methods and means of measurements and control which are most suitable to ensure the specified characteristics of reliability taking into account the requirements to economy and control-appropriateness. The application of the procedure described is shown by the example of designing the input control process of paint-and-lacquer materials at an industrial enterprise.
Key words:quality management processes, quality function structuring, QFD, input control process, paint-and-lacquer materials

V.V. Kuts, M.A. Sidorov, M.S. Razumov, Yu.A. Malneva. MODELING OF GENERATING SURFACES IN FEMALE MILLING CUTTERS WITH DESIGN RADIAL INFEED FOR MACHINING SHAFTS WITH HOMAXONIC PROFILE
The paper reports the solution of the urgent problem on technological solutions searches ensuring the shaping of profile keyless joints. The investigation was carried out with the use of the methodology of a structural-parametric synthesis of metal-cutting sys-tems which allowed compiling mathematical and geo-metrical models of a female milling cutter generating surface with a design radial feed for the shaping of profile keyless joints. On the basis of this there was carried out the analysis of cutting procedures chosen which has shown that the procedure with a coaxial location of a milling cutter regarding a shaft is most promising from the point of view of cost price and ma-chining accuracy. The research results may be used at the devel-opment of design-engineering documentation at the preparation of profile shafts production to ensure product characteristics specified
Key words:milling cutter, generating surface, homaxonic, geometrical model, theory of shaping, structural-parametric synthesis

A.V. Kirichek, D.L. Soloviyov, A.A. Zhirkov, O.N. Fedonin, S.O. Fedonina and A.V. Handozhko. POTENTIALITIES IN ADDITIVE-SUBTRACTIVE-STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES
The accurate shape obtaining is the most significant, but far from being the only problem which is solved at parts produc-tion. Not less important are also such properties as elasticity, plasticity, strength and durability and so on. It is well-known that high-temperature influence upon billet material which follows any of known processes of additive processing ad-versely affects the above-mentioned properties. The most significant task of additive techniques is ensuring material qualitative structure and high operating properties in a part manufactured at multiple increase of productivity. The purpose of theoretical and practical researches carried out consists in the development of the technology in which to the processes of additive and subtractive treatment there is added a process of hardening with shock wave deformation that allows structuring, strengthening, compacting the material of a layer grown forming compressive stresses instead of tensile residual stresses of thermal origin. The growth of a part is carried out by means of arc deposition with wire materi-al. Such an approach ensures productivity by an order higher, but has such drawbacks as defects of structure, considerable porosity and low accuracy in comparison with powder additive techniques. The drawbacks mentioned are compensated by strengthening and machining in the course of product manufacturing. The research methods - a comparative analysis of the structure of iron-carbon material manufactured with the use of additive-subtractive techniques and additive-subtractive strengthening techniques. Results and conclusions. In strengthened material, in contrast to non-strengthened one there are no practically hidden cavities. The dimensions of phase elements of ferrite and pearlite in material manufactured according to the technology with strengthening decrease by more than five times. Hardness of material grown with strengthening exceeds more than twice hardness of material manufactured without strengthening
Key words: additive techniques, subtractive treatment, hardening, hardness, strengthened material

Transport

A.V. Puzanov. HYDROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF RUNNING GEAR IN AXIAL-PISTON HYDROMACHINE
Specific power increase in hydraulic actuators requires the accuracy increase in computation proce-dures at designing elements of drives and hy-dromachines. A running gear of a hydromachine is a unified unit, a basic element of a system defining its reliability and servicing characteristics. It finds its equilibrium position at a complex impact of power factors of different origin: a hydromechanical effect of working liquid, a thermal effect of liquid and a contact and friction of mechanical parts. A classic decomposi-tion and analysis of separate simulators break the integrity of a working process and its equilibrium position. For taking into account the influence upon hydromachine functionality hydrodynamics and deformation of mechanical elements forming a flowing part we developed a complex model of functioning a running gear of an axial-piston hydromachine taking into account the existence and interference of power factors with different physical origin. In the paper there are shown the results of the simulation of hydrodynamics, deformation and strength in a complex setting
Key words:hydraulic actuator, hydromachine, simulation, hydrodynamics analysis, strength analysis

S.A. Voronov, V.S. Gavrilova. RELIABILITY INCREASE IN HIGH-DYNAMIC AXIAL-PISTON HYDROMACHINES
At present time there is a trend of specific power increase in axial-piston hydromachines (APHM) that results in increase, volumetric and mechanical losses loads and servicing characteristics decrease. It requires a corresponding reliability increase in hydromachines of this type. Basic reasons of capacity loss and APHM ser-vicing characteristics decrease are sliding couples: a cylinder block – edge distributor, pistons-cylinders walls. Nonmetallic antifriction materials used for manufacturing coatings of interacting surfaces in parts are considered most promising for manufacturing coat-ings for operation surfaces in parts of friction units of APHM. In connection with the evident topicality of the scientific-practical problem of reliability increase in modern high-dynamic APHMs there was offered a procedure of choice of anti-friction materials, their sliding couples and an algorithm of its realization. The procedure is based on the comparison of performance of antifriction materials used with parameters of an operation mode of friction couples and also power loss for friction and material wear intensity. As basic performances there were assumed maximum contact pressures, temperature and rates of a relative motion of mating surfaces, and as a parameter characterizing material durability, - comparative linear wear intensity. The realization of a procedure for an axial-piston pump with a sloped disk with the capacity of 15 cm3 allowed justifying a purposefulness of the applica-tion for “pistons-cylinder walls” couples of fluoro-plastic materials, for the rest of couples – hydro-nitration
Key words: reliability, axial-piston hydromachine, friction couples, wear, capacity loss, sliding, materials

M.V. Manueva, D.Ya. Antipin, V.V. Kobishchanov. ASSESSMENT OF CONSIDERATION INFLUENCE OF ELASTIC PROPERTIES IN ROAD-TRAIN SUSPENSION UPON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAT-CAR FOR PIGGYBACK TRANSPORTATIONS
The assessment of consideration influence of elastic-dissipative properties in a road-train located upon a flat-car for piggyback transportations at the motion on real surface road imperfections is carried out. The assessment of dynamic characteristics in a flat-car frame is carried out on the basis of finite-element models with the use of “Universal Mecha-nism” software complex
Key words: piggyback transportations, flat-car, road-train, elastic-dissipative properties, finite-element model, dynamic behavior

K.S. Remnev, O.G. Gomanchuk, S.A. Tishin. DESTRUCTION OF MOTOR CAR HIGH-LIFT FUEL PUMP CASING CAUSED BY CORROSION CRACKING
The paper reports the state of casing material of motor car high-lift fuel pump destructed during opera-tion. With the purpose of the material study on defects existence in the structure there is carried a metallo-graph analysis of cap material in an inlet valve. The investigation of non-metal inclusions was carried out in accordance with the requirements of RSS 1778-70. At the same time there was carried out the investigation of a sample microstructure. The analysis of the totality of destruction facts revealed allowed drawing a conclu-sion that a casing destruction in a HLFP took place in the area of a lower turn of cover thread of one of inlet valves. It is established that the destruction occurred as a result of crack formation and its growth. A crack arose in the course of operation as a result of edge brit-tleness in metal grains caused by the development of corrosion cracking processes development
Key words: high-lift fuel pump, HLFP, inlet valve, compression chamber, destruction, corrosion cracking, plastic deformation

Ñomputer engineering and information technology

M.Y. Rutov, A.P. Gorlov, D.A. Lysov. AUTOMATION OF PROCESS AN ASSESSMENT EFFICIENCY OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS OF INFORMATION SECURITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN CASE WITH SIMULTANEOUS IMPLEMENTATION OF THREATS
This paper reports the automation of an effi-ciency assessment process for complex systems of information security by means of an automated system formation the basic functions of which are: carrying out of information security (IS) audit, model formation of IS threats, recommendations for the formation of information security systems, a set of organization-regulatory documentation. For the solution of a problem in the efficiency assessment of confidential information protection there is developed a simulator and a universal criterion taking into account a probability of the realization and combating threats and allowing the estimation of the complex system efficiency for information protection in dynamics of processes occurred. The approach offered to the assessment of an information security level of an information object allows reducing considerably material and time costs for carrying out information security audit and also increasing the design solutions quality at the creation and introduction of complex system of information protection
Key words:information security, assessment, IS audit, threats model, automated system, informatization object, security, device of Petri Nets

D.I. Kopeliovich, O.I. Dragunovskaya. DATA WAREHOUSE USE FOR INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL SYSTEM OF MONITORING COLLEGE STUDENTS’ ACTIVITIES
The creation of an information-analytical sys-tem (IAS) of monitoring students’ activities is consid-ered. The models of monitoring, the realization of data integration with the use of SQL Server Integration Ser-vices are formed. The logical models of modules and a general model of the data warehouse are shown. The results of the system use are presented
Key words:monitoring, students’ activity, data warehouse, OLAP, data integration, de-normalization

A.V. Averchenkov, V.V. Kolyakin, D.V. Orekhov, L. Ya. Kozak. DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM OF HYDRAULIC JACK COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
The paper reports the problems in automation of designing hydraulic jacks of one-way action. The analysis of methods of computer-aided design systems creation is carried out and the algorithms of allowing the formation of a system for computer-aided design of hydraulic jacks are under development. A conceptual approach to a jack choice depending on conditions of its operation allows reducing time for the analysis of requirements specification. In the course of the work with the system there were developed eight basic modules of the system. These modules allow reducing considerably time for the technical documentation development essential for manufacturing jacks with one-way operation and decreasing other costs in the course of designing. Databases created store all the essential information for the proper work of basis modules and also that of standard products, 3 D parametric models and associative drawings. The system developed meets all the requirements imposed on CADs. It is applicable at enterprises engaged in production and repair of hydraulic equipment. The Hydraulic Jack CAD was tested at a functioning enterprise and justified hopes
Key words:design automation, hydraulic equipment, hydraulic jack, automated design system

F.Yu. Lozbinev, E.V. Kolesnik, A.A. Gamov. ELEMENT AND STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF MULTISERVICE CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK
In the paper there is offered a method for the design evaluation of hardware reliability in communi-cations network elements in terms of standard values of its trunk structural reliability. To carry out a gener-alized assessment of communications equipment reliability in general and for the evaluation of network directions reliability there is considered such an index as availability. With the use of the procedure developed the design assessment of time between failures of southern, northern and western trunks in the telecommunications network at different kinds of equipment and a topology and also at different methods of maintenance works is carried out. The computations are carried out in terms of standard coefficients of readiness for existing networks and communications networks of the following generation without taking into account the influence of destabilizing factors. The assessment of the influence of time for reconstruction of communications facilities upon a coefficient of network trunks availability is fulfilled. The following options of maintenance works are considered: an existing choice when equipment failures at the places are eliminated by experts coming from a regional center; a choice providing for trunks obligatory reservation of communication channels up to each endpoint. On the basis of results obtained the conclusions on purposeful methods of maintenance to ensure standard values of readiness coefficients for existing networks and communication networks of the following generation are formulated
Key words:telecommunication network, radioelectronic means, fiber-optic communication trunk, reliability indices, coefficient of equipment readiness, element reliability, structural reliability

V.V. Chechik, K.A.Batenkov. SIMULATION OF HTTP AND FTP TRAFFIC USING RIVERBED SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
The purpose of the investigation presented in the paper is the obtaining and analysis of statistic de-pendences of service quality characteristics for the traffic of HTTP and FTP applications. By means of Riverbed software product there is created a simulation model with the aid of which the essential characteris-tics (time necessary for the extraction of the whole of a page and probability of packages loss) are obtained. On the basis of the dependences presented as diagrams there is carried out the analysis of data obtained as a result of which the following conclusion is drawn: on the whole the dependencies of service quality charac-teristics for traffics of HTTP and FTP applications do not differ considerably and have the same trends owing to the application of an identical report of a transport level.
Key words:simulation, Riverbed software product, applications, service quality characteristics

A.G. Podvesovsky, O.A. Mikhalyova. PECULIARITIES IN PROCESSES SIMULATION OF GROUP MAKING-DECISIONS IN DISTRIBUTED EXPERT NETWORKS
A current stage of information society develop-ment creates a basis for the initiation and development of new information techniques of management activity support. One of them is the technology of information and expert-analytical support of the development, analysis and management decision-making in distributed environment. At the same time, in increasing frequency in the course of the preparation and decision-making the persons making decisions resort to the use of experts’ group opinion in the corresponding subject fields. In the paper there is considered one of the significant and widespread problems in decision-making – the problem of experts’ group assessment of objects and also the approaches to its modeling under conditions of experts’ distributed interaction are investigated. A generalized algorithm is offered and an information model of group examination in distributed expert networks is created. It allowed emphasizing basic stages of the mentioned process and information ties between them and also defining a set of expert procedures essential for the information provision of a support process. A complex of models of processing the results of a group examination is defined the formation and investigation of which represents a priority task for the development of a distributed information system of group examinations support
Key words:decision-making, expert networks, expert assessments, group examination, consistency of expert assessments, assessment of experts’ competence, information model

E.E. Averchenkova, D.I. Goncharov, D.A. Lysov. MODEL OF INFORMATION SECURITY OF INFORMATION ADVISING SYSTEM
The problems in assurance of information security for the automated system under development are considered. The model of threats to security is formulated. A topicality and possibility of threats realization, a level of design protection of the information system developed are defined. Peculiarities in the formation of an information security module and its correlation with other elements of a structural-functional circuit of an automated system are considered
Key words:: information security, information advising system, model

A.V. Morozova. MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN ORGANIZATION SYSTEM OF “ENTERPRIZE-COLLEGE”
The purpose of this work consists in the presen-tation of the results in the theoretical generalization of management problems in the organization system of ‘enterprise-college’ and its above-system of ‘produc-tion sphere-vocational education’. In the work there is considered the purpose of a design integration in the form of a strategic partnership of ’enterprise-college’, the analysis of scientific publi-cations on the problems of management updating in different social-economic systems is carried out, the objects and subjects of management in an organization system of ‘production sphere-vocational education’ are defined, the urgency of the problem in young specialist selection for the filling of vacant seats at industrial enterprises of high technology is revealed. In the course of the investigation there were used the methods of a system analysis, comparisons, target setting and objects modeling. As a result of the investigation there is formu-lated a complex multi-level problem of management in organization systems of ‘production sphere-vocational education’ and ‘enterprise-college’, a model of a quali-ty cycle in the organization system of ‘production sphere-vocational education’ is formed, a logical struc-ture of the multi-level problem field of management in the organization system of ‘production sphere-vocational education’ in the form of Euler-Venn dia-gram is defined.
Key words:organization system, quality, management, object, model, problem, enterprise, college

Economics and management

E.A. Dergacheva. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN RESEARCHES OF ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC PROCESSES
The concept of economy as a socio-technical system falls into the bounds of a narrow social-economic (sociologic) approach in the world economy management. Within the bounds of the given approach the economic sphere of activity is considered as an all-sufficient system establishing different social-economic ties with elements forming it – industrial and servicing complexes, transport systems, urbanized set-tlements and interacting with its surroundings – natural environment (biosphere). An economic method of pro-duction as a product of socium develops in terms of social-economic regularities supported by market rela-tions and scientific-technical solutions, and nature – on the basis of natural biological regularities which do not suppose a mutual interlacing of units in these process-es. From the field of researchers’ vision escape deep interconnected transformations in society conditioned with the activity of market-directed socium, its econo-my and nature on the basis of the use of the latest pro-ductive forces, the expansion of techno-sphere and artificial world as a whole. Such a narrow approach in the comprehension of modern micro-, macro- and global economy limits the potentialities of effective management of current and prospective stable ecologi-cal-economic development as the consumption by a society the products of biosphere and its transformation in consequence of management is ignored. The process of extended production integrating in itself an exchange, distribution, production and consumption of material benefits does not include in the field of its consideration the transformation changes in natural-biological systems and transition to an anthropogenic one in many respects artificial environment of life support and life reproduction. Social systems recreate a technical-technological infrastructure of economy and in a wider sense – artificial environment, a technosphere. Its accelerating development promotes innovation development of enterprises and results in inevitable transformations in society, man, and nature, and in the dissemination of interrelated social, technosphere and natural transformation processes. Therefore it is necessary to expand a narrow content of a system approach of its wide multidisciplinary interpretation and to include interactive anthropogenic socio-natural processes in the field of the consideration of socio-technical and socio-economic systems. It will allow carrying out a thorough account and forecasting the consequences of the activities of managing subjects and passing to the prospect of stable socio-natural development.
Key words:: economic-ecological processes, socio-techno-natural development, anthropogenic development, technosphere, biosphere, multidisciplinary approach

N.E. Barsukova, E.V. Klyushnikova. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY IN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT OF SCIENCE CITY
Intellectual capital occupies a significant place among factors of economic development of such re-gional formations as science-cities of the Russian Fed-eration. In the paper there is formulated the author’s definition of intellectual capital of a territory as a category providing income growth both of single man and a science city as a whole and being a source and a basis for economy innovation development. To achieve management purposes, in authors’ opinion, the concept of an “intellectual capital level” (ICL) is more suitable which combines intellectual capital and the results of its realization. The identifica-tion of factors in management effectiveness is carried out with the use of characteristics in population life quality and the correspondence of scientific-industrial-complex indices of a municipal region to the science city status of the Russian Federation. The decomposition-aggregate method offered for the ICL assessment allows defining efficiently the ICL of a science city revealing problem areas manag-ing in a system way an intellectual capital level in-creasing a living standard of population and keeping a high status of a ”science city of the RF”.
Key words:intellectual capital, science city, management efficiency evaluation, intellectual capital level

G.I. Konovalova. SYSTEM APPROACH BASED INVESTIGATION OF PRODUCTION AND ENGINEERING COMPANY MANAGEMENT
Today at engineering companies there is the fol-lowing problem: the inconsistency in management de-cision-making causing high production costs, a longer duration of a production cycle and a non-observance of timing of orders. To solve this problem the author of this paper has analyzed with system positions produc-tion and management at an engineering company. A system model is offered, there is described an enlarged structure, hierarchy and kinds of ends, a functional model of engineering company management is formed. In the functional model there are presented functions of a company, production and information flows. In the management scheme of a company there are formulated strategies, ends and indices of efficiency in the field of investigations and developments, finances, marketing, production. A production strategy, budget and orders connect the scheme of company management and the scheme of production management. In the scheme of production management there is located a development of processes for decision-making support, scheduling, on-line planning, production control, material procurement, resources control, servicing management, company shipments. The scheme of production management has two levels: a company level and a workshop one. Functions of on-line production plan-ning at a company level provide the formation of a production program, plan-schedules of manufacturing products, parts, units, material requirements, man-hours, production costs. Functions of on-line produc-tion planning at the workshop level ensure the for-mation of production schedule and working up urgent plan tasks for production sections (brigades). The influence of external and internal factors upon management system formation is described. The technical solutions offered are introduced at the closed company of “UK “Bryansk Engineering Plant” and have a universal character and may be used at all engi-neering companies of the country
Key words:enterprise, management, model, method, system, production, indices

N.V. Petrukhina. COLLEGES OF BRYANSK REGION AS RESOURCE OF ITS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF “TRIPLE HELIX” CONCEPT
Problems and potentialities of innovation system development in the Bryansk region by means of the activation of business and college interaction are analyzed. The topicality of the idea of college transformation into valuable participants of an innovation process which, on the one hand, function as institutions for personnel training with higher professional education, and, on the other hand, - as offices causing a formation, introduction and diffusion of novelty (innovation) is estimated. Furthermore, there are pointed out those branches of economy of a region which have pre-conditions for innovation development with college participation. As a significant tool for an innovation development activation there is considered an intra-elite rotation between three sectors: business, college environment and power. The intra-elite rotation is considered as follows: as the means of balancing authority and liabilities of actors; as a mechanism of elite circulation between actors supposing their development, as increase of their competence; as social-management technology; as an additional mechanism formed according to the principle of a feedback between actors. The intra-elite rotation is considered as one of the urgent and efficient means of innovation economy development in case of the insufficient integration of “triple helix” actors and also a low communication potential of actors
Key words:“triple helix” concept, innovation system, intra-elite rotation, business, power, college, elite circulation, elite

D.V. Yerokhin, A.N. Gornostaieva, I.G. Chernyshova. PROBLEMS IN ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATION PROCESS AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE
In the paper the innovation management of an industrial enterprise is considered. The cooperation problem of colleges and industrial enterprises is touched upon. The regularities in scientific-engineering development of production under conditions of the formation of market economy and its crisis state are revealed. New principles ensuring the purposefulness of development are elaborated, the peculiarities in re-search work are considered. The authors have formulated the factors affect-ing the innovation development of an industrial enter-prise both in the view of acceleration and from the point of view of innovation process deceleration. On the basis of the analysis carried out there is formed a program of innovation project realization at the “UK”BMP” Co. with the indication of terms and costs. The stages of program realization with measures shown increasing innovation activity efficiency are formulated
Key words:organization management, innovation process, industrial enterprise, innovation, innovation activity, mechanical engineering, innovation project

N.V. Grachyova, V.V. Odinochenkov. FORMATION OF MECHANISM FOR ENTERPRISE STABLE DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT
The problems in functioning and development of enterprises under conditions of current economic challenges and trends are considered. Regarding strate-gic development the necessity in production modeling in terms of modern technologies allowing adapting quickly to the changes in environment is shown. As the tools supporting this idea the approaches ensuring quality of development and realization of planned and program projects of development are considered. There is offered a method for regulating a mechanism of the value added distribution and enterprises subsidy depending on the profitability level achieved and providing in such a way the capitalization of the own means for development
Key words:planning, budget management, purposeful program, innovation process, program-end structure, financing

D.V. Yerokhin, A.S. Novikov. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMS IN PLEDGING OF INTER-BUDGET TRANSFERS FROM BUDGET OF SUBJECT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO LOCAL BUDGETS
Standard-legal documentation of the subject of the Russian Federation (Bryansk Region) regulating a process of inter-budget transfers provision in the form of subsidies from the budget of the subject of the Rus-sian Federation to local budgets are analyzed. Accord-ing to the results of the analysis carried out there are revealed law enforcement problems the elimination of which allows ensuring higher budget efficiency
Key words:budget of subject of the Russian Federation, local budgets, inter-budget transfers, subsidies, budget efficiency

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