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Journal "Vestnik BSTU" ¹ 2 (55) 2017

Founder is the federal State budgetary
Educational Institution Higher Professional
Education "Bryansk State Technical University"

Chairman of Editorial Council – O.N. Fedonin, D.Eng., Prof.

Vice-Chairman of Editorial Council – S.P. Sazonov, Can.Eng., Prof.

Editorial Council:
V.I. Averchenkov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
A.Yu. Albagachiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
A.P. Babichev, D.Eng., Prof., (Rostov-upon-Don)
V.F. Bezyazychny, D.Eng., Prof., (Rybinsk)
D.R. Blurtsyan, D.Eng., Prof., (Sweden)
A. Bukhach, D.Eng., Prof., (Poland)
L.G. Vainer, D.Eng., Assistant Prof., (Khabarovsk)
O.A. Gorlenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.D. Erokhin, PhD.Econ., Prof., (Bryansk)
A.G. Ivakhnenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Kursk)
S.A. Klimenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Ukraine)
V.V. Kobishchanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
I.S. Konstantinov, D.Eng., Prof., (Belgorod)
B.Ya. Mokritsky, D.Eng., Prof., (Komsomolsk-upon Amur)
D.I. Petreshin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.B. Protasiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Tula)
A. Pester, D.Eng., Prof., (Austria)
L.A. Savin, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
V.P. Smolentsev, D.Eng., Prof., (Voronezh)
D.L. Solovyov, D.Eng., Prof., (Murom)
Yu.S. Stepanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
A.G. Suslov, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
A.V. Khandozhko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
M.L. Kheifits, D.Eng., Prof., (Belarus)
A.S. Yanyushkin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bratsk)

Editorial board:

Editor-in-chief
A.V. Kirichek, D.Eng., Prof.

Deputy editor-in-chief
A.V. Morozova, Can.Sociol. Sc.

Executive secretary
V.A. Tatarintsev, Can.Eng.

Proof-reader – V.A. Yerokhina

Editor – M.L. Shcherbakova

Registration certificate
by Federal Service for Supervision of Legislation
in Mass Media and the protection of cultural heritage
PI ¹ FS77-21709 August 17, 2005

Address editorial office:
7, Bulvar 50-letiya Oktyabrya,
Bryansk, 241035, Russian Federation
tel. (4832) 58-82-77
e - mail: vestnik@tu-bryansk.ru

The subscription index of catalogue
“Russia press” - 18945 semi-annual,
15621 – annual.

It is issued in February 2004.
4 numbers a year

CONTENTS

Engineering thought of Russia: persons, ideas, developments

V.P. Ivanov, A.V. Morozova. N.N. POLIKARPOV: CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT The purpose of this work consists in the presen-tation of investigation results of scientific heritage of Nikolay Nikolayevich Polikarpov, an outstanding Rus-sian aircraft designer. During design and modernization of aircraft equipment including current one there are used the following basic scientific elaborations and scientist’s investigation results: the procedure of designing, crea-tion and tests of preproduction machines (1923-1925); the procedure of aircraft strength calculation, the calculation procedure of longitudinal static aircraft stability (1924-1926); the calculation procedure of mixed design airplanes; the procedure for inves-tigations of plane spin properties (1925-1929); production (for the first time in the USSR) of domestic duralumin and development on its basis design elements (1923-1926); the development of principles for the installation on planes all types of home aircraft armament (PV-1, ShKAS, ShVAK 12.7mm, ShVAK 20 mm, UBS and others), their introduction in stock de-signs; development of the synchronous heavy-caliber mounts of the first in the USSR and synchronous cannon armament; development of the system of gun mounts (first in the URSS) shooting through a hollow shaft of a reducer and suspended machine-gin units; development of a design and formation of an U-2 type plane for primary training; development of a fuselage of “monocoque” type; development of retractable landing gear for a fighter-monoplane and biplane; development of high-altitude plane (first in the USSR world altitude record – 14475 m by I -15 type plane); development of pressurized cabins of different designs and their installation on planes (1935-1939) and so on.
Key words: aeronautical engineering history, Polikarpov, aircraft designer, U-2, pressurized cockpit, plane spin characteristics, aircraft armament, repetition work

Mechanical engineering and engineering science

A.V. Ponomarenko, V.M. Vasilets, D.N. Levin. OPTIMIZATION OF AVIATION COMPLEX ERGONOMICS CHARACTERISTICS THROUGH METHOD OF SIMULATION INVESTIGATIONS OF AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
The matching of human potentiality characteristics with the characteristics of an aircraft designed and their optimization by the fulfillment of investigations on an interactive system of training and education (ISTE) developed by “RDC “MiG” Co. is considered
Key words: : ergonomic characteristics, aircrafts, simulation investigations, interactive system of education and training

B.Ya. Mokritsky, A.V. Kirichek, A.V. Morozova, E.B. Mokritsky. INVESTIGATIONS OF CUTTING OPERATION PROCESS RESULTS ON BASIS OF MODELING USING SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
The purpose of investigations is a search of methods for the reduction of tool costs without quality decrease and decline of productivity by means of the modeling of a milling process with end milling cutters. By means of the simulation of a cutting process with the aid of software environment of ANSYS (standard module Workbench Explicit Dynamics), Solid Works (Simulation module), (SOLID 164) there are analyzed the fields of stresses, temperatures and deformations of elements of a cutting system at the machining of blanks made of aluminum alloy, structural steel, titanium alloy. Furthermore, by simulation of stresses and deformations of hard alloy end milling cutters there are obtained updated designs of composite end mills ensuring decrease of the part of tool costs in the cost price of products manufactured without decrease of quality and efficiency in comparison with solid hard alloy milling cutters. The simulation result have shown that with solid milling cutters can compete composite mills the price of which times lesser which is justified by further in-vestigations.
Key words: simulation of stresses, simulation of deformations, axial tool, simulation of cutting process, software environment

A.M. Sementsev.PRODUCTION RISKS AND PROSPECTS IN USE OF LASER WELDING AT MANUFACTURING LARGE DIAMETER PIPES
The paper deals with problems connected with the possibility of laser welding use at manufacturing large diameter pipes. Technical parameters of large diameter pipes which are to be ensured for their safe use in modern main gas pipelines are considered. The ways for the achievement of these parameters are shown, at that a particular role is assigned to ensuring longitudinal weld seam quality are shown. The factors affecting both, technical parameters of basic pipe metal and a weld joint, and operation characteristics of produce are emphasized. There are shown advantages connected with the use of laser technologies for obtain-ing a longitudinal seam. Problems and possible produc-tion risks at laser welding fulfillment are considered
Key words: weld seam, main gas pipelines, laser welding, weldability, large diameter pipeline

A.A. Reutov. FUZZY DESCRIPTION AND CHOICE OF DESIGN CONCEPT
The offered fuzzy description of the design con-cept includes a faceted formula, a fuzzy description of the assessment of the compatibility of facet pairs with a linguistic variable, the presentation of parameters and characteristics through fuzzy sets. Preferred concepts of design are chosen with the compatibility assessment of value pair facets and comparison of descriptions of concepts and technical tasks (TTs) for design. Thereupon the descriptions of concepts and TTs must have an equal format which implies equal rules for making up descriptions, meth-ods for data presentation in information objects, use of fuzzy sets. A joint use of compatibility assessments in pairs of facet values and results of the comparison of con-cepts and TTs allows passing to a resultant fuzzy as-sessment and choosing a preferable concept of design. A resultant assessment includes partial criteria taking into account values of a linguistic variable of the com-patibility of facets value pairs and also an intersection of fuzzy sets of TT characteristics and concept descrip-tions. There is offered a method of a fuzzy choice of a preferred design concept at information lack and TT uncertainty.
Key words: design concept, technical task, facet formula, fuzzy set, linguistic variable

S.Yu. Syanov.DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ELECTRO-EROSION PROCESSING
Electric erosion machining (EEM) is one of the efficient and economically profitable methods of material machining in mechanical engineering. The EEM has a number of substantial advantages which widen a field of practical use of this machining method at manufacturing various products of mechanical engineering. In spite of that EEM processes are studied thor-oughly enough, at present there are no clear successive methods of EEM technological process development. For the EEM technological process develop-ment there was defined an interaction of initial EEM data and parameters with the surface layer quality, the productivity and tool wear reasoning from theoretical experimental dependences describing an EEM process and was offered a procedure for the development of operations in an EEM technological process. As a result of investigations there are obtained theoretical and experimental dependences allowing the definition of machining modes depending on surface layer quality, machining productivity and permissible wear of a tool electrode, and also the recommendations on working liquid choice are given. All this will allow designing an EEM technological process with maximum productivity and required quality of a surface at minimum costs
Key words: technological process, electric erosion machining, surface layer quality, process productivity, tool electrode

À. Naeimi, V.A. Rassokhin. EFFICIENCY OF GAS-TURBINE CYCLE WITH STEAM INJECTION AND ANALYSIS OF ITS INTERACTION WITH WATER DESALINATION PLANT
A gas turbine (GT) is considered as a promising method for energy production. The use of GT cycles for a gas turbine plant (GTP) with steam injection in the integrated system for water desalination and energy production was analyzed with the aid of the criteria of energy and exergy efficiency. A brief description and substantiation of conditions for GT cycles and systems for the production of electric power and sweet water of double use are given. A plant for thermal desalination is modeled and analyzed. The results obtained led to the choice of the system of vapor-compression and multi-column distillation (METVC) for sweet water production from sea water; further there was investigated the efficiency of systems on the basis of GTP with steam injection. The analysis carried out has improved comprehension of systems based on GTPs with steam injection for the production of electric power and water desalination and also methods for their optimization. The results have proved that METVC system for desalination is more preferable that MED system in those cases when operating steam pressure for starting a steam ejector is high enough, > ~ 3 Bar as in two combined analyzed systems
Key words: gas turbine, multicolumn distillation, steam ejector, sea water desalination, efficiency criteria, simulation.

A.V. Kirichek, S.V. Barinov, A.V. Yashin. STRENGTH INCREASE IN STEEL 45, 40H AND 35HGSA BY DEFORMATION WAVE STRENGTHENING
Strength increase by a deformation wave is more advantageous in comparison with other ways of strengthening as it allows ensuring in a surface layer a larger depth of strengthening with a smooth transition from a strengthened surface to an non-strengthened one which is especially significant for materials operating under conditions of static loading. The paper reports the fulfilled investigations of the impact of strengthening heterogeneity with a deformation wave upon strength of steel 45, 40H, 35HGSA. The investigations of strength properties were carried out both on samples strengthened only on one side (on contact one), and on samples strengthened on two sides (on contact and supporting ones). As a result of investigations it is defined that at one-sided treatment of steel 45 with strengthening uniformity increase a strength limit increased by 8%, the ductility decreased by 37%, an elastic limit increased by 43%. The strengthening uniformity increase in steel 40H resulted in strength limit increase by 13%, elasticity decrease by 38% and elasticity limit increase by 81%. At steel 35HGSA strengthening with uniformity increase there was observed a strength limit increase by 4.2%, plasticity decrease by 28% and elasticity limit increase by 51%. In case of two-sided strengthening with a deformation wave the values of strength properties of steel 40H did not actually change in comparison with one-sided treatment. The two-sided strengthening of samples made of steel 35HGSA brought to the growth of their strength limit by 2.8% and ductility limit by 20% as compared with one-sided treatment
Key words: deformation wave, hardness, heterogeneously strengthened structure, strength

A.F. Balaev. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CENTERLESS METHOD EFFICIENCY IN RACER STABILIZATION
The relaxation of residual stresses in racers in the course of their operation results in product life de-crease. To decrease residual stresses one usually uses thermal tempering which possesses high power con-sumption and low productivity. A thermal tempering substitution for a method of racer centerless rolling is called upon to eliminate these drawbacks. For realiza-tion of a centerless rolling there is used a three-roll device with axles of two rolls turned around a vertical plane for an adjustable angle ensuring a longitudinal and rotary motion of racers. The third roll loads a racer in such a way that an elastic deformation could arise in areas of a contact with three rolls. A rotation transfer to a racer from a driving roll on the whole of a surface rolled. An oscillatory character of elastic deformations of a racer results in the relaxation of residual stresses. There is carried out an experimental investigation of centerless running-in productivity. On the basis of ex-perimental results obtained there is defined a depend-ence of an exhaust stroke and an amount of racer loading cycles upon an angle of the crossing of roll axles, rotation frequency of rolls and a value of tech-nological deformation. As a result of two methods comparison it is defined that the centerless running-in consumes power 50 times less and is efficient more than 5 times of thermal tempering.
Key words: centerless running-in, racers, deformation, setup, productivity

V.T. Perevezentsev, M.A. Shilin, D.V. Gribanov. ASSESSMENT OF STEAM HUMIDITY INFLUENCE IN PRACTICAL PROBLEMS OF SEAL METERING CHARACTERISTICS DEFINITION
Actually all stages of condensing turbines at nu-clear power plants and also peripheral, end and dia-phragm seals on a shaft function with saturated or weak-superheated steam which causes necessity in theoretical and experimental investigations of a two-phase working medium flow in elements of a flowing part and seals. Losses caused by moisture in a turbine part may be divided into thermo-dynamic, gas-dynamic and losses of braking. Losses in seals are poorly studied because of the physical processes complexity in two-phase media. Using dependences mentioned in the paper it is possible to assess approximately moist steam leakage in a seal which will allow supplementing well-known procedures of the thermal computation of wet-steam turbines with amendments for moisture affecting considerably a coefficient of expenses of labyrinth diaphragm seals
Key words: seal, humidity, turbine efficiency, moisture removal

A.V. Titenok. EXPERIMENTAL DEFINITION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BEARINGS WITH HIGHEST KINEMATIC PAIRS
The aim of this work is to check up experimen-tally the results of theoretical investigations carried out in the author’s works. There was developed a program and a procedure of investigations, a test bench was produced. The results of investigations carried out have shown the following: theoretical characteristics of a restoring force are checked up by static tests on a test bench; both computational and experimental curves have a nonlinear characteristic of a restoring force; in the experiment the curve of a restoring force appeared to be lower of a theoretical one because of friction forces in elements of a system; at dynamic tests on a test bench there are obtained curves of changes in the amplitude of load oscillations depending on frequency and amplitude of a disturbing force for two options of a nonlinear system; a maximum amplitude of system oscillations depends upon a value of the disturbing force amplitude; at kinematic amplitudes of 10 and 7 mm occurs amplitude release at the transfer in an over-resonance area, at the amplitude of 4 mm a value of release is not reached because of the presence of con-siderable friction in the system; the tests carried out allowed confirming qualitatively that the behavior of a load on bearings with highest kinematic pairs at forced oscillations does not contradict commonly accepted theory of nonlinear system oscillations; at bench tests of an actual sample of the bearing the obtained characteristics of a returning force coincided actually with the rated ones
Key words: bearing, kinematic pair, contactor, angle of clutch, friction angle, oscillation amplitude, static tests, dynamic tests

Friction and wear

M.V. Zernin. STRESSED STATE IN ANTI-FRITICAL SLIDE BEARING WITH CRACK
A finite-element method for calculating VAT at the crack tip in the antifriction layer of a plain bearing was constructed. Calculations are carried out in two stages. First, the contact problem is solved in order to determine the pressure profile acting on the bearing surface. At the second stage, the bearing shell (in our case the test bearing-sample) with a crack in the anti-friction layer is considered. The triangle is modeled as a section of finite width with an angle at the vertex. The methods for constructing finite element grids are de-scribed to ensure the accuracy of the results. The as-pects of modeling the influence of oil falling into a crack under pressure and providing a wedging action are considered. The results of the work will be used for the subsequent refined analysis of the experiments and obtaining the parameters of the cyclic cracked bone of antifriction layers
Key words: sliding bearing, antifriction layer, stressed state, crack tip, finite element method, stress intensity factor, wedging action of oil

V.P. Tikhomirov, V.I. Vorobiyov, M.A. Izmerov, N.N. Strekalov, A.A. Pugachyov. THERMAL RESISTANCE DECREASE BETWEEN CASE OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE AND ITS RADIATOR
A connection of a contact state in the case of a power semiconductor device with the evaporator of a cooling radiator with its normal operation mode is shown. The procedures of modeling a corrugated rough surface contact with the definition of basic geometric and power parameters of the contact interaction ensur-ing essential thermal resistance to support a normal thermal operation mode in a power semiconductor de-vice are described
Key words: thermal resistance, contact mechanics, rippling, fractal surfaces, gap

Metallurgy and materials science

D.A. Ilyushkin, S.V. Davydov, D.A. Boldyrev. CAST IRON NANO-MODIFICATION FOR GLASS-FORM CASTINGS
Under production conditions there was prepared and carried out a ladle modification of cast iron melt by sphedroidizing and inoculating modifiers jointly with a complex modifier based on PAE. To study the peculiarities of cast iron structure formation in castings of glass-forming fixture under PAE influence there was investigated a structure and measured hardness on the cross section of castings before and after their thermal treatment at the distance up to 25 mm from a working (glass forming) surface. PAE additives to standard modifiers cause dif-ferent structural effects depending on the kind of cast iron melt treatment. The PAE melt treatment in the course of spheroidizing and inoculating modification strengthens cast iron chilling, but at that stabilizes graphite of a vermicular form the thermal conductivity of which is higher in comparison with a globe-shaped one. The structure of a metal base of such cast iron (in spite of the carbide increase in the structure) after a high-temperature annealing does not differ from the common one. The treatment of PAE melt jointly with an inoc-ulating modifier causes an effect of counter modifica-tion and instead of chilling intensifies a process of grey iron graphitization that result in the disintegration of an operating layer structure in castings and its hardness increase, graphite inclusion increase in the matrix of a glass-form, decrease of its hardness, but product ther-mal conductivity increase
Key words: cast iron, glass-form, microstructure, PAE, hardness, nano-modification, counter-modification

G.F. Mukhametzyanova, M.S. Kolesnikov, I.R. Mukhametzyanov, A.S Khabirova, A.V. Gerasimova.IMPACT INVESTIGATION OF PRESS-MOLD OPERATION LOADING PARAMETERS FOR ALUMINUM CASTINGS UNDER PRESSURE UPON DESTRUCTION PROCESS OF STEEL 4Ch5MFS IN MELT AK12M2
On the basis of literature data and the analysis of the destruction phenomenological situation of press-molds for aluminum castings under pressure it is estab-lished that press-tool working capacity is defined by steel resistance to cracks of thermo-mechanical fatigue and abrasive wear in melts. For the investigation of regularities in development of thermo-mechanical fa-tigue crack and wear there is developed a physico-mathematical model of a working capacity functional taking into account the influence of definite parameters of a loading complex. According to the results of analog tests on the basis of the simplex method of experiment planning there are obtained regressive equations defining dependences of the influence of the cyclic viscosity criterion ( ), a temperature gradient, the engraving heating temperature of press-molds, melt displacement velocity upon kinetics of thermo-mechanical fatigue crack development and solubility of steel 4Ch5MFS in melt AK12M2
Key words: press-mold, engraving, working capacity functional, wear, aluminum melt, analog tests

S.N. Khimukhin, V.V. Gostishchev, A.V. Medneva, Hosen Ri, E. H. Ri. INTERMETALLIC COATINGS AFTER HEAT RESISTANCE TEST
The structure of intermetallide coatings formed by a method of electro-spark alloying (ESA) is investi-gated on steel 30 after a test for heat-resistance at a temperature of 900ºC. As materials for coatings there were used alloys obtained from oxides by an alumo-thermy method. NiAl based alloys by Cr, Mo, W, sepa-rately and in complex. By a method of an electron microprobe analysis on cross microsections of samples of steel with coatings there was studied an element composition of different structural constituents. Maximum values of the mass transfer at the formation of coatings by material having NiAlCr are explained by presence in the structure of a softening phase containing an increased concentration of Cr (mass % 80-93). It is defined that the highest values of heat-resistance are ensured by a coating formed with the use of a complex doped alloy NiAl-Cr-Mo-W. A distinguishing feature of this coating is its fine structure and presense on borders of phases of structural constituents of alloying elements hindering diffusion
Keywords: nickel aluminides, electro-spark alloying, composite coatings, heat-resistance

Transportation means

E.V. Slivinsky, S.Yu. Radin. SPRING SUSPENSION MODERNIZATION IN FREIGHT CARS
In designs of modern freight cars for dynamic impact reduction upon a railway there are widely used four-wheel trucks with a spring suspension using cy-lindrical spiral compression springs. A considerable drawback of such a design of car spring suspension consists in that it has no possibility of self-regulation in an automatic mode of its rigidity parameters depending on external dynamic effects of railway unevenness upon them. To eliminate such a drawback there is developed at the level of invention in Bunin ESU a promising design of an adaptive torsion spring suspension and carried out a set of computations on the substantiation of its efficient design parameters
Key words: spring suspension, torsion, slots, wheel pair, elastic rod, bush

D.Ya. Antipin, A.S. Kosmodamiansky, V.O. Korchagin. CONTACT SPOT AT CONFORMAL INTERACTION OF ROLLING-STOCK WHEEL WITH RAIL
The problems in the analysis of a rail contour and a rolling-stock wheel for the definition of the de-gree of contact conformity are considered. Computa-tions are shown, the geometrical parameters of a con-tact spot are calculated, graphical dependences are created. The results obtained are juxtaposed with the existing investigations in the field of a contact interac-tion of a wheel with a rail. The definition of contact spot parameters under conditions of operation widens the potentialities in control systems of a locomotive clutch. A method for the conformity degree detection in a deformed contact based on the width and area definition of a contact spot of a non-elliptical shape is offered. The essential and sufficient conditions for the formation of a conformal contact of a wheel with a rail are described with the use of a mathematical device, the integral and differential methods of functions investigations are used
Key words:conformal interaction, wheel contour, wheel profile, contact spot, conformity degree

Informatics, computer engineering and management

Ya.A.V. Ptitsyn, L.K. Ptitsyna. ENSURING INFORMATION SECURITY BASED ON METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF AGENT TECHNOLOGIES
Among great number of characteristic properties of the present day there is emphasized a development of socium technosphere. Particular attention is paid to the use of scientific educational production environment in professional activities. In relation to economy conditions of the information society there are considered objective prerequisites for scientific research development in the field of information security. At the conceptual level there is substantiated an expediency of artificial intelligence active participation in the assurance of information security. As artifacts to ensure information security the intellectual computer agents are chosen. As a supporting basis of agent intelligence there are used algorithms of agent action planning. For the further perfection of computer agents of information security it is offered to use a model-analytical intelligence. The purpose of investigations consists in the development of the intelligence of computer agents to control and fulfill guarantees in the assurance of information security. As a result of the review of scientific achievements on the investigation of intelligent infor-mation agents there is chosen a methodological basis of agent technologies. In the context of information security threats appeared there is substantiated a topicality of the analysis of the situation integration of computer agent simultaneous actions to achieve pur-poses specified. In accordance with the methodology chosen there are developed expended object-directed models of computer agents on information security. With the aid of the method of sub-process free integra-tion the analysis of model formation is carried out. In the course of the analysis there is formed a model-analytical intelligence of computer agents on infor-mation security. The computer agent intelligence de-veloped allows overcoming a priori uncertainty regard-ing guarantees in the assurance of information protect-ability
Key words:information security, agent technologies, intelligent agent, quality profile, methodological basis, expended model, likelihood in goal achievement

O.N. Dmitrochenko. EXTENDED DECIMAL NOMENCLATURE DNCM CODE FOR DESCRIPTION OF ARBITRARY FINITE ELEMENT
The purpose of the work – extension of a sys-tematic classification of finite elements offered earlier by the author with the purpose of inclusion in it new types of elements with a complex kinematic structure. There is offered a modification of a decimal nomenclature dncmkot code of finite elements. The code is based on the presentation of geometry and structure of unit coordinates by a set of integral param-eters: d – dimensionality, n – unit number, c – structure and number of coordinates in a unit, m – polynomial number. It is emphasized that there is a wide class of elements which does not fall under this classification. In these elements there is first introduced an intermedi-ate element and then a linear transformation between them. It is offered to designate for some wide groups of elements one or some parameters – n, c, m and oth-ers having a clear sense which modify a procedure of the formation of functions of an element form. There are shown examples of the description of elements with a complex kinematic structure on the basis of the offered modification of a decimal code. The offered modified decimal nomenclature code of finite elements allows describing the existing and creating new finite elements of a wide class ac-cording to the specified dncmkot code
Key words: finite element, classification nomenclature, decimal code

V.K. Gulakov, K.V. Gulakov, I.A. Savostin, A.O. Trubakov, E.O. Trubakov. ASSESSMENT OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL PYRAMID EFFICIENCY
The paper deals with one of the urgent trends in the field of big data – multidimensional information processing. One of possible data structures – multidi-mensional pyramid which allows fulfilling many op-erations with the complexity O(1) or O(logn) is under consideration. For basic operations there are given thorough examples. The description, analysis and as-sessment of multidimensional pyramid efficiency are shown. The assessments of operation complexity with these data depending upon their dimensionality are given. The analysis of multidimensional pyramid effi-ciency for its different modifications is shown.
Key words: multidimensional pyramid, basic operations, sorts of k-d pyramids, k-d pyramid improvement, data large dimensionality

E.P. Diyachenko, A.V. Rybakov, E.N. Diyachenko, S.A. Sheptunov. AUTOMATION OF CONTROL PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FOR NC MACHINES IN DIFFERENT CAD WITH USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
The purpose of the work is a study of machining processes with the use of NC equipment, data processing structuring to technological requirements and also to geometrical properties of parts manufactured. In this work there is considered a technological model of source data used at majority engineering plants. Trends to the development of pre-production automation to the general technical reequipment of plants are defined. There is offered a method for the decomposition of models including complex surfaces into design-technological elements. By means of the method of the analysis of modern equipment potentialities there is given a pulse to the automation of pre-production in the used technological environment based on CAD operation. Control program writing is reduced to the technological parameter setting to each design-technological element taken separately. The concept of expert/section interaction and that of problems solved by them is stated. It is shown that the parameterization of design-technological forms results in the decrease of temporal costs for pre-production decreasing at that the amount of specialists required and visualizing the process ma-chining
Key words: intelligent data analysis, neural network, defect identification, perceptron, rolling surface, bearing, eddy current testing

S.I. Dosko, V.V. Kirenkov, V.G. Mikitenko. DUALITY PRINCIPLE USE AT SOLUTION OF INVERSE PROBLEMS OF TEST RESULT ASSESSMENT
The purpose of this work was a consideration of one of possible ways to improve methodologies for the solution of standard inverse problems on the basis of dual method attraction in the solution of the other applied problem considered in the theory of optimum management. As a reason for such an approach, ac-cording to the authors, is that both problems (identifi-cation and management) possess reciprocal duplicity as pursue an end object identical from the mathematical point of view - definition of the extremum of a certain functional. When such a functional is accepted in a quadratic form appears a possibility to pass from numerical approximate methods of solution to analytical ones. From the stand point of the possibility to use this principle in this paper there is considered a standard inverse problem often arising at the assessment of dynamic systems states according to the results of their tests in modes of a passive experiment, in particular, at their normal operation. It is shown that at the solution of standard inverse problems of the assessment of test results it should be possible to use purposefully the methodologies of duality with analogous problems of the theory of optimum management. The approaches considered in the paper passed practical realization at the solution of some inverse problems
Key words: selection committee, entrant, web site, visual interface, color gamma, bread boarding

T.V. Karlova, A.Yu. Bekmeshev, M.V. Mikhailova, A.N. Zapolskaya. STRUCTURAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON EXPERT-PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
The paper deals with the problems in the struc-tural model development of human agency impact on the basis of engineering-psychological peculiarity study in processes of management decision-makings in com-plex integrated automated systems. In actual hierarchical systems of management a basic problem consists in searches of ways of inter-connections in the activities of structures both along the vertical and horizontally. The algorithm for the formation of a functional activity system which is created by a single motivation, by a purpose, personal senses and by the image of the result obtained realizing definite psychical functions carries out processes in the structure of a human nervous system. The integral manifestation of human ability in activity is a gift which just consists in this unity and it can be defined through the properties of functional systems which realize human psychic functions. The program of management decision-making processes contains not only conditions for the choice of intelligent operation fulfillment, but also temporal modes and runs through structural units of the whole of an activity system. The processes of the program creation and management decision-making which are supported with each capacity owing to a single directivity of the system of ability functioning simultaneously become subordi-nate in accordance with their motivation activity. For the diagnostics of professional expert ca-pacities it is necessary that such a methodology should be developed which would contribute to the investiga-tion of a problem field of activities from the stand point of inter-subject approaches to complex technical objects on the basis of integrated automated systems of management.
Key words: management, management structure, simulation, purpose definition, ability functioning, methods of expert assessments, expert-psychological approach

E.P. Diyachenko, A.V. Rybakov, A.N. Shurpo. CONTROL PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT BY RANKING METHOD OF REQUIREMENTS TO DESIGN-TECHNOLOGICAL ELEMENTS BASED ON DIFFERENT CAD
The purpose of the work fulfillment is develop-ment of the method for NC machine programming with the aid of design-technological elements with the use of CAD, effectiveness increase in pre-production and time expenditure decrease. There were analyzed parts of a turning-milling group having in their structure complex surfaces. A process of part decomposition into structural elements and also providing essential parameters for each of them is presented. There was used a graphical representation of form units for larger visualization of the process. The process of a CP stepwise formation for NC machines by means of the design-technological ele-ments composition of a part is offered. The decomposition of model surfaces into groups according to an accuracy degree allowed minimizing a choice of surface machining modes, and a table of technological decision-making allowed fulfilling control program development with the smallest amount of errors. There is shown effectiveness in possibility of a CAD choice in the information-technological environ-ment used, the quality increase of structured surface machining is emphasized. The knowledge base formed allows decreasing time for CP development under con-ditions of modern engineering enterprises. The trend for the methodology development for CP formation by means of ranking structural elements is shown.
Key words:control program, pre-production automation, decision-making table, modeling, requirement ranking, machining, design-technological elements, CAD.

I.V. Tereshko, V.A. Logvin, V.V. Redko-Bodmer, S.A. Sheptunov. SIMULATION OF MOLEDCULAR INTERACTIONS IN WATER AFTER IRRADIATION WITH GLOW DISCHARGE
On the basis of the method of molecular dynamics there is carried out a computer simulation and the dependence of each atom displacement (molecule) of a chain upon time passed after cessation of the external ionic effect of a glow discharge is investigated. It is defined that in molecular and atomic chains there is observed a phenomenon of chain collapse with the formation of high-power nano-cluster and dimensions of a collapsed chain depend upon the choice of the potential of inter-atomic interaction at equal power of an external effect
Key words:simulation; glow discharge, molecular interaction

O.R. Chayka. MODELING OF HARVESTER OPERATION ON SAMPLING FELLING
The purpose of this work is development of a simulator of harvester operation on sampling felling. Plantation parameters are characterized by tree coordi-nates, diameters and species. The selection of trees for felling is carried out according to species, diameter or a combination of these parameters. In the course of the modeling there is imitated a machine motion on the basis of two neighboring technological passages. The procedure offered for the modeling of a harvester oper-ation allows obtaining data essential for the computa-tion of the productivity of its work and assessing its quality on the basis of the accessibility of trees defined in the felling for cutting. The procedure allows taking into account non-straightness of the machine motion and that factor that separate trees can be processed from two or more machine positions including those located on neighboring runs
Key words:modeling, algorithm, harvester, sampling felling, accessibility

.A. Kochetkova, V.G. Rubanov. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION-MAKING SIMULATOR BASED ON THEORY FUZZY SETS AND FUZZY CONCLUSION
The problem solutions in human state assess-ment on the basis of clinical data are connected, as a rule, with considerable difficulties causing errors at diagnosing. This paper reports the possibility to de-crease the influence of different disturbing factors upon a problem solution quality on cardiology on the basis of the decision-making simulator formed on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy conclusion. In such a way, in case of impossibility to define a disease range to which belongs a point characterizing a patient state on condition that data of disease range cross themselves, the consideration of the possibility to reduce a level of ambiguity in identification on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets allowing the assessment quantitatively a value of belonging degree of a two-dimensional image current value of a patient state to a corresponding image is offered
Key words:fuzzy sets, fuzzy conclusion, diagnostics, pattern recognition, decision-making

Economics and national economy management

N.A. Taranova. “WINDOW OF POTENTIALITIES” CONCEPT – BASIC STRATEGY FOR WAY OUT FROM SYSTEM CRISIS
The paper reports the consideration of the “Window of Potentialities” concept as a basic strategy for the way out from the system crisis. A phased analy-sis of a life cycle of a technological way is carried out. A characteristic of a technological way on an embryonic phase, the phase of “kinds of new technical ways (TW)”, phases of growth, maturity and decline of TW is given. Basic signs of each phase are under consideration. There are characterized such forces af-fecting the development of the TW as a state policy, monopolists, capital, business and investors, innovators, financial bubbles. The most significant index of TW development is an intelligent rent and its relations in different countries. Standards as a way for superiority keeping are analyzed. Four basic innovation strategies are considered. A thorough analysis of the concept of “Window of potentialities” as the only viable strategy of the state economy way out from the system helical economic crisis is carried out. A key role of scientific and technical progress in the matter of the way out from the crisis and in economy growth is defined
Key words:: theory of long waves, life cycle of technological way, “Window of Potentialities” concept, scientific and industrial progress, intelligent rent, standards, NBIK-technologies

D.V. Yerokhin, A.S. Novikov. TAX BASE TRANSFER AS ELEMENT OF TAX TREATMENT COMPETITION
The fulfillment of tax obligations is considered by private subjects as a certain economic-financial risk. Striving for the minimization of such a risk a tax payer resorts quite often to a tax base transfer. These actions correlate that fact that at the current stage of tax policy development of states there is a differentiation of tax climate types mediating in practice meaningful elements connected with the minimization of a tax risk of a specific tax payer. There is offered a typologization of tax treatment types with respect to tax payers. Specific economic-financial results are defined which can be obtained at the distribution of tax jurisdiction upon corresponding objects of taxation
Key words:taxes, tax payer, tax base, tax treatment, economic-financial risk

Engineering psychology,pedagogic, ergonomics, design

E.A. Lazebnaya. SELECTING THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN THE MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE EXPERTS 'REQUIREMENT
The methodology of forecasting the demand for specialists includes the main indicators that describe the aggregate demand for specialists of the specialty that exists on the regional labor market. For each selected aggregated group of indicators, the factors-indicators characterizing the demand for specialists are identified. On their basis, criteria have been developed, the values of which determine the information basis for forecasting. When constructing a mathematical model for forecasting the demand for specialists, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the functioning of the labor market in conditions of uncertainty and with incomplete data. In the paper, the stages of fuzzy inference are defined in the formation of withdrawal rules used to select the most significant factors in the model of forecasting the demand for specialists. The results of building rules in the MATLAB environment are given. The use of these rules will improve the mechanism of adaptation of the mathematical model of forecasting the relevance of specialists regarding the available initial data and the expert's opinion
Key words:forecasting technique, specialists' demand, mathematical forecasting model, withdrawal rules, selection of significant factors

Tribune of international open forum

S.A. Pakhomova, S.Yu. Shevchenko, O.I. Manaev. CURRENT APPROACHES TO FULFILLMENT OF MASTER’S FINAL QUALIFICATION WORK
This paper reports the recommendations for the fulfillment of master’s final qualification work (FQW) on direction 22.04.01 “Material Science and Material Techniques”. The significance of student’s abilities for a self-dependent work is substantiated. A current ap-proach to a work consists in that it is carried out on the basis of a system analysis of the research theme speci-fied. A FQW is to be carried out in a complex way taking into account technological, economic and eco-logical factors. A scientific adviser’s role in a MFQW consists in the formation in a master student capacities to carry out a scientific search, specify and solve professional problems self-dependently, to state special information in a professional way, to argue scientifically and de-fend the own point of view relying upon concepts formed. In the course of the work the following educa-tional problems are under solution: there are formed skills in planning and carrying out a scientific research, in processing scientific information, in the interpreta-tion and argumentation of results of the investigation carried out; an ability develops in use of knowledge obtained at the solution of applied problems according to the direction of training, at the development of rec-ommendations and offers scientifically substantiated
Key words:final qualification work, investigation, material choice, technology, thermal treatment, design

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