Founder is the federal State budgetary
Educational Institution Higher Professional
Education "Bryansk State Technical University"
Chairman of Editorial Council – O.N. Fedonin, D.Eng., Prof.
Vice-Chairman of Editorial Council – E.A. Pamfilov, D.Eng., Prof
A.A. Abramov, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
V.I. Averchenkov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
E.V. Ageev, D.Eng., Prof., (Kursk)
A.Yu. Albagachiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
V.Yu. Antsev, D.Eng., Prof., (Tula)
A.P. Babichev, D.Eng., Prof., (Rostov-upon-Don)
V.F. Bezyazychny, D.Eng., Prof., (Rybinsk)
A. Bukhach, D.Eng., Prof., (Poland)
I. A. Buyanovsky, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
L.G. Vainer, D.Eng., Assistant Prof., (Khabarovsk)
G.M. Volokhov, D.Eng., Prof., (Kolomna)
O.A. Gorlenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
S.V. Davydov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
A. A. D’yakonov , D.Eng., Prof., (Chelyabinsk)
A.G. Ivakhnenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Kursk)
S.A. Klimenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Ukraine)
V.V.Kobishchanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
I.S. Konstantinov, D.Eng., Prof., (Belgorod)
A.S. Kosmodamianskiy, D.Eng., Prof., (Moscow)
K.V. Makarenko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
B.Ya. Mokritsky, D.Eng., Prof., (Komsomolsk-upon Amur)
A. Pester, D.Eng., Prof., (Austria)
D.I. Petreshin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
V.B. Protasiev, D.Eng., Prof., (Tula)
L.A. Savin, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
V.P. Smolentsev, D.Eng., Prof., (Voronezh)
D.L. Solovyov, D.Eng., Prof., (Murom)
Yu.S. Stepanov, D.Eng., Prof., (Orel)
A.G. Suslov, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
A.V. Khandozhko, D.Eng., Prof., (Bryansk)
M.L. Kheifits, D.Eng., Prof., (Belarus)
S.N. Khimukhin, D.Eng., Prof., (Khabarovsk )
A.S. Yanyushkin, D.Eng., Prof., (Bratsk)
A.V. Kirichek, D.Eng., Prof.
A.V. Morozova, Can.Sociol. Sc.
V.A. Tatarintsev, Can.Eng.
Proof-reader – V.A. Yerokhina
Editor – M.L. Shcherbakova
by Federal Service for Supervision of Legislation
in Mass Media and the protection of cultural heritage
PI ¹ FS77-21709 August 17, 2005
Address editorial office:
7, Bulvar 50-letiya Oktyabrya,
Bryansk, 241035, Russian Federation
tel. (4832) 58-82-77
e - mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The subscription index of catalogue
“Russia press” - 18945 semi-annual,
15621 – annual.
It is issued in February 2004.
4 numbers a year
Mechanical engineering and engineering science
INVESTIGATION OF CASTING PATTERN ABRASION RESISTANCE
OBTAINED USING ADDITIVE TECHNIQUES
In the investigation presented there is consid-ered a problem of the durability definition in casting pattern equipment made of ABS (acrylnitrilebutadi-enestyrene)- and PLA (polylactide)plastic obtained through a method of 3D printing by technology of lay-er-by-layer surfacing to abrasive wear in molding sand medium.
A description of the procedure and equipment for tests of plastic models made of ABS- and PLA ma-terials is shown. The techniques for manufacturing models with the use of 3D printer (additive techniques) are described. There is offered a circuit with the appli-cation of vibrational load for model tests which repro-duces most qualitatively real conditions of abrasive wear in molding sand mixture. In addition the proper-ties of protective coatings on the basis of acryl paints and two-component polyurethane tar with a special extender were studied.
All tests were carried out on the basis of up to 2000 cycles, each of which corresponds to one molding or a model removal. The additive techniques use for manufacturing casting equipment is a promising direc-tion in engineering development, as common methods for manufacturing wooden or metal equipment are expensive. As a result of the investigation there is developed and approbated test engineering, a procedure to study wear of plastic casting patterns manufactured according to the additive techniques of layer-by-layer surfacing.
In the paper there are formulated generalized practical recommendations for 3D printing of casting pattern equipment for impression obtaining in a sand mold as technological solutions and measures for abra-sive wear prevention of such patterns at molding.
Key words: foundry, additive techniques, 3D printing, casting patterns, abrasive resistance
A.S. Yamnikov, O.A. Yamnikova, I.A. Matveev, E.N. Rodionova/
IMPACT OF POSITION ERROR OF COMPOSITE AXISYMMETRIC BODY JOINT SURFACES UPON POSITION ERROR OF EXECUTING SURFACES
In the paper a method for face runout verifica-tion in a base member with the use of a control stand is under consideration. A peculiarity of this method con-sists in that as a prism one uses rollers forming a prism imitation with the profile right angle in the contact with the part under testing. A preliminary measurement of face bearing runout has shown that it affects considerably measurement accuracy. To control a face runout a part tested is installed upon roller prisms and pressed to the contact of a special plug in its face with a fixed bearing at the level of the rotation axis that excludes the face runout impact of the passive end. A dial indicator is brought to the end controlled and at the base member rotation one defines through the indicator reading difference a runout value of the sample under testing. According to the data obtained with the aid of Pearson’s criterion a convergence of the theoretical and practical runout distributions is confirmed. Besides, there is considered a verification of the unit assembled in the structure of which is included a nozzle unit where a runout of the central hole requires measuring. The measurements carried out have shown the dependence between parameters of the distribution of runout frequency of the second end and a nozzle unit. In summary a conclusion is drawn on the necessity to update techniques of turning joint surface of the base member
Key words: position error, joint surfaces, base member, executive surfaces, law of error distribution, assembly
.V. Kirichek, S.V. Barinov, A.V. Yashin, A.A. Zaitsev, A.M. Konstantinov.
WAVE DEFORMATION MULTI-CONTACT LOADING
The ongoing investigations are devoted to the study of the impact of a number, geometry, tool loca-tion in the multi-contact percussion system upon mi-cro-hardness distribution in a surface layer. The inves-tigations were carried out on the bench specially devel-oped. As a result it is established that the application of tools with a flat end in comparison with the form of the end sharpened spherically with the same dimensions of areas with maximum micro-hardness allowed obtaining a strengthening depth by a factor of 2-2.5 times more. The increase of a distance between tools for a value equal to half their diameter allowed flat end indenters in comparison with the end sharpened spherically to increase an area with maximum micro-hardness from 0.25 to 0.8 mm and to ensure complete strengthening the whole area under consideration. Without worsening strengthening parameters at the same impact energy the investigation data allow increasing by 50% the efficiency of strengthening treatment at the expense of the application of the multi-contact system in which tools with flat cutters are located at the distance from each other equal to half their diameter
Key words: impact pulse, strengthening, deformation wave, micro-hardness, waveguide, striker, percussion system
Informatics, computer engineering and management
MATHEMATICAL INVESTIGATION OF CONVEYER ANALOG-DIGITAL
CONVERSIONS IN SYSTEM OF RESIDUAL CLASSES
Conveyer devices are the most studied in the field of a modular analog-digital conversion. Here a primary task is a realization of actual methods of cod-ing error correction. The first step in the understanding of possible solutions is a preliminary examination of the object of study. The work purpose consists in the realization of adequate simulators of conveyer analog-digital conversions in SRC and analysis of their statis-tical characteristics. For the synthesis and investigation of models there was used LabVIEW environment. Be-sides the realization of the correct algorithm of a unit work the model adequacy is formed at the expense of the existence of white noise generators on the basis of Box-Mueller transform each of which is responsible for the own analog part of the circuit. Though a share of incorrect cord words of modular numbers only many times more of polyadic ones, a mean square deviation of the first is higher of the second for many orders. The overwhelming influence upon the distortion of the ana-log-digital conversion is carried out by first units of paths as the interference arising there undergoes finally the highest amplification. The immediate obtaining of the deduction of SRCs as conversion results is fraught with unacceptable uncertainty even in comparison with polyadic numbers generated in the same paths. Peculiarities in the form of a functional dependence of the distribution density allow supposing a potential use for the ultimate aim realization
Key words: conveyer analog-digital conversions, system of residual classes, SRC, statistical characteristics
NEW APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMIC SYSTEM
OF ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE UNDER CONDITIONS
OF DYNAMIC DIVERSE MANUFACTURING
at engineering enterprises the following problem exists: non-correspondence of management decision making to the required state of production causing high production costs, a large duration of production cycle and failure to comply with timing of orders. To solve this problem the author of the paper investigated from the system positions a dynamic diverse manufacturing at an engineering enterprise and its effective management. There is offered an approach to the matching of purposes and indices at strategic, tactical and effective levels of management on the basis of dynamic plan-schedules. The developed engineering solutions are introduced at CC “UC “Bryansk Engi-neering Enterprise” and have a universal character and may be used at all engineering enterprises of the coun-try
Key words: engineering enterprise, management, purposes, economic system, dynamic diverse manufacturing, indices
A.V. Averchenkov, E.E. Averchenkova, D.I. Goncharov, V.P. Fedorov, G.A. Fedyaeva.
BRYANSK REGION SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SIMULATION FOR ADVISING INFORMATION SYSTEM
In this paper there is described an approach to the computer model creation of social economic processes by the example of the Bryansk region. A flow block is presented, which manifests the logic of the operation of an advising information system, a choice of an approximating function type, which is selected according to the method of least deviations from actual point data. The assessment of actual suitability of the created simulator is carried out by the computation of a determination rate. The verification of models created is carried out with the aid of the data of the department for economic development of the Bryansk region; there are defined basic tendencies of their changes in the course of the period of time under consideration. In the paper it is offered to form a forecast of a region development on 12 directions, a total number of specific indices to the computation is 44. At the formation of mathematic functions there were used statistical data of 2011-2016 and data forecasted for the Bryansk region up to 2019 taken from the official documentation of the Bryansk regional government for the development of the forecast of social economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2019 (for the subjects of the Russian Federation). For easier comprehension the computation data are presented as 3D diagrams. Besides, the paper reports the assessment of efficiency and actuality of all mathematical approaches, models and methods used
Key words: mathematical modeling, social economic development, regression analysis, advising information system, management decisions
V.T. Eremenko, M.Yu. Rytov, A.P. Gorlov, V.I. Averchenkov, V.P. Fyodorov.
EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT PROCESS SIMULATION OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS FOR INFORMATION PROTECTION OF ENTERPRISES AT THREAT SIMULTANEOUS REALIZATION
The purpose of this paper is a thorough consid-eration of approaches to the process assessment simulation of the complex system efficiency for information protection of enterprises at the simultaneous realization of some threats. On the statistics basis during recent years in the statistics there is substantiated a topicality of subjects chosen, basic problems of data protection are described. Basic regulations used at the formation of a complex system for information protection are presented. A process for the development of simulators, information support and a software complex for an automation assessment of the protection level and complex system efficiency of information protection is described. The paper reports the circuit of the operation mechanism of the automated system for the efficiency assessment of the information protection system used at an enterprise, and also basic results of the application of a similar software complex: documentation, simulators of potential threats, recommendations for protection system updating are considered. Petri network is formed on the basis of initial data on the considered protected object of modeling. It is colored, probable and inhibitory which allows assessing the efficiency of the system of object protection taking into account timeliness of the reaction of counteraction means and threat realization simultaneity. The conclusions on the efficiency of use of the procedure presented are drawn.
Key words: information security, efficiency assessment, IF audit, threat model, automated system, informatization object, security, apparatus of Petri network
V.V. Kolyakin, V.I. Averchenkov, F.Yu. Lozbinev, A.A. Reutov, A.A. Obozov.
RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D MODELS OF REAL OBJECTS
FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM FORMATION
The purpose of this paper writing is a consider-ation of the process in the complex automated system realization for the virtual museum formation on the basis of data obtained as photo-images or a video-stream. Basic museum functions are considered tho-roughly, it is pointed out a place of modern information technologies in institutions dealing with the collection, analysis, storage and demonstration of certain objects. The topicality of subjects chosen is substantiated, and also there is considered a concept of a virtual museum – an interactive multimedia software product present¬ing museum collections in an electronic way. In the paper current approaches to 3D reconstruction of ob¬jects are reflected, basic differences between contact and contactless techniques of 3D modeling are shown. Besides, there is presented in it a structural functional diagram of the automated system of 3D reconstruction used at virtual museum formation. Functional possibil¬ities of each module are described; mathematical me¬thods in 3D modeling are presented. There is given an assessment of the efficiency of the approach used to the formation of an automated system. Basic ways to the solution of problems connected with formation of vir-tual areas to show peculiarities of real objects
Key words: 3D models, 3D reconstruction, point cloud, virtual reality, museums, virtual museums, image processing
B.Ya. Mokritsky, T.I. Usova, A.V. Morozova.
ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO-MEASUTING MULTI-SENSOR SYSTEMS
Standard optical appliances are not suitable for the direct detection and measurement of micro-defects similar cracks in materials having a low reflectivity. It restrains the introduction in manufacture a number of engineering products.
There are carried out investigations showing a possibility of defects diagnostics such as cracks at the use of video-measuring appliances of Micro-Vu Sol 161 and MarVision MM 320 type which are not in-tended for this purpose. It allows solving partially the problem, but this is an interim measure. It is necessary to develop corresponding methods, techniques, regula-tions and equipment. The results obtained in the work may serve for this purpose as a methodological basis
Key words: video-measuring multi-sensor systems, engineering capabilities, micro-cracks detection
Metallurgy and materials science
A.A. Veselovsky, S.A. Laikhan.CHEMICAL-THERMAL EXTRACTION OF NICKEL
AND IRON FROM WASTE NICKEL SLAGS
This paper reports a current state of the problem in waste nickel-bearing slag processing by the example of waste anthropogenic formations of the South-Urals Nickel Complex (SUNC). The data of the average analysis of the waste slag chemical composition of the SUNC, phases containing iron, cobalt, nickel and chromium, charts of these elements distribution in slag, the reactions of the decomposition of the phases men-tioned with the formation of nonferrous metals halogenide compounds included in waste slag compo-sition are set up and substantiated thermodynamically. A structure and morphology of ferronickel bead nu-cleation are shown, and a further magnetic separation is substantiated, the data of the chemical analysis of slag structural components after magnetic concentrate and magnetic separation tail glowing are presented. A chemical composition and useful ferronickel output obtained from magnetic concentrate remelt in Tam-man furnace with the use as a coke deoxidizer (1 mass. %) to complete reducing processes are under investigation, and also data on the degree of nickel and iron extraction from waste slag into a magnetic concentrate and a slag chemistry obtained after magnetic concentrate remelt are shown
Key words: waste slag, chemical-thermal processing, nickel, iron, ferronickel, magnetic separation
STATISTICAL PRINCIPLE FOR BOUNDARY DEFINITION IN DEVELOPMENT
OF SHORT CRACKS INTO MACRO-CRACKS AND ITS REALIZATION
FOR TIN-BASED BABBIT
On the basis of the analysis of stages in the nu-cleation and development of fatigue cracks there is offered a statistical principle for the definition of boundary parameters at the development of short cracks into macro-cracks. This principle is based on the considerable difference in dissemination parameters of crack development at the two stages mentioned above. The results of experimental investigations of cracks development in a babbit layer of bimetallic cylindrical samples bearing load according to a pattern of a curve with rotation are processed. It is established that a transition from short cracks to long ones (macro-cracks) is realized on reaching by a rate of stress intensity a value of 1 MPa . The results of the work will be used for the further rated definition of life for sliding bearings with a babbit layer.
Key words: repeated loading, stages of crack development, rate of crack development, short cracks, macro-cracks, statistical approach, tin-based babbit
E.V. Slivinsky, T.E. Mitina.
DIESEL LOCOMOTIVS EFFICIENCY INCREASE DUE TO THEIR
WHEEL PAIRS BOXING DECREASE
In the structures of modern diesel locomotives for tractive force increase sanders, different in their design, are used. A significant drawback of such de-signs is that sand used by them litters tracks and causes the accelerated wear of diesel locomotives and cars followed in the train. In Bunin SU of Yelets at the level of the invention there is developed a promising design of the device meant for the exclusion of wheel pair boxing in diesel locomotive undercarriages and a set of computations to substantiate its efficient design parameters is carried out
Keywords: diesel locomotives, wheel pairs, tractive force, clutch, boxing, sander, nozzle